women are still getting toxic shock syndrome, and no one quite knows why - super absorbent material
Since December, five cases have been reported for menstruation
Related toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
According to the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, the state has averaged less than four cases per year over the past decade.
Related to the use of cotton strips, caused by bacterial S. aureus or S. strep, considered life-
The threat, the sudden increase in TSS cases is notable and worrying.
Young women are linked by the female hygiene products they use: four of the five women use super absorbent tampon, and four of the five women use the Playtex Sport brand;
Kotex has a case involving you.
But what exactly is the TSS and why is it important for the affected person to use which tampon?
For women who remember the rise of TSS in their 1970 s, the disease and its risk factors may be familiar.
However, the most dangerous tampon has not been on the market for a long time now, and the lack of public awareness may lead to a surge in this situation.
TSS is a complication caused by certain types of bacterial infections and is a dangerous physical response to the toxins they produce.
It can kill you: TSS from S
The mortality rate of S. aureus was between 5-15%, but it was as high as 30-70 for strep TSS.
TSS is related to menstruation, which is basically created to make better and more commercially viable tampon.
Women have long used internal packaging materials to absorb menstruation.
We think today's tampon is an early relative.
Vaginal interior device characterized by binding the absorbing material to the rope-
It dates back to the 18 th century.
However, it is reported that from the use of wool in ancient Rome to papyrus in ancient Egypt, women have historically stopped their flow internally.
However, commercial tampons did not mature until the 20 th century, when more than 1930 tampons were put on shelves.
A cotton ball packed with a retractable applicator to ease the fear of those pearls
Clut is concerned about direct access to the genitals.
Tampon was successful, and a new field of commercial women's sanitary products was born.
By the 1970 s, manufacturers had become entrenched in the competition, hoping to give tampon a competitive advantage.
Interestingly, Playtex introduced scented "deodorant" tampon and plastic in 1971 --
Dome applicant, 1973.
This, of course, is the next frontier.
In 1978, P & G began selling an ultra-high to American consumers.
The absorbent cotton strip called Lai.
What is special about this tampon is its composition: Rely is fully synthetic and consists of water, not cotton and artificial silk in other tamponloving, hyper-absorbent food-
A grade concentrate called carbon-oxygen methyl cellulose (also known as cellulose gum.
It's a common substance: it's in your ice cream, toothpaste, at least in late 1970, it's in your tampon. With a forward-
Opening the thinking shape of the cup inside the vagina, coupled with the ability to absorb a large amount of liquid, seems to herald a new era of tampon.
Unfortunately, the product is full of trouble from the beginning.
First of all, there are some problems related to the natural and humid environment of relying on the high absorption of cotton strips to over-dry the vagina, drying delicate organs to the extent that removing cotton strips can tear off some vaginal walls, resulting in ulcers, and easy access to the remaining microorganisms in the body.
Then, there is a problem with the ol' bacteria buffet, where the liquid in the tampon is excessive food for both local and imported microbial populations.
Into toxic shock syndrome
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1980 (CDC)
55 cases of TSS, a disease characterized by high fever and sunburn, were reported
Like a rash, high blood pressure, failure or abnormality of the multi-organ system, at the end of the disease, dramatic peeling or peeling occurs in parts such as hands and feet.
Cases continue to increase. A follow-
The up report of June pointed out that the continuous use of tampon during menstruation is a risk factor for developing TSS, and further studies have found that
Cases of absorption and outbreak by cotton strips.
The public was informed of the dangers posed by the use of Rely tampon, which was removed from US store shelves in September, two years ago when the product went public, the sharp surge in the TSS case started its climb, and the rate of decline was as fast as the rate of rise.
That year, more than 800 TSS cases were reported to CDC.
More broadly, from 1979
1996. 5,296 cases of TSS were reported;
Today, the incidence of TSS hovers around 1 person per 100,000 people per year.
But all this raises the question: if it's TSS, WTF?
In general, there are two ways to develop menstrual TSS: S. aureus and S. ogenes.
The former is quite common-
Positive bacteria common in nose, respiratory tract and skin;
This is not always pathogenic, but due to the abundance of gold, the bacteria are called "S. aureus"
It does not cause colored pus when the infection occurs.
On the other hand, S. ogenes (
Also called group A strep or GAS)
It is an uncommon but often pathogenic member of the skin microbial community.
In addition to causing TSS, severe invasive GAS infections can also lead to necrosis fasciitis, a disease commonly referred to as "meat-eating disease.
"The role these bacteria can play in the development of TSS begins with a simple opportunistic diet.
If these bacteria are lucky enough to have a rich source of food,say, a super-
Absorbent cotton strips filled with uterine nutrient waste prepared for babies-
They will be happy to enjoy it.
But the reality of TSS is more complicated than that.
Under normal circumstances, the body's natural immune system does a great job of turning off the bacteria carnival in the meat buffet.
Our bodies are warm and delicious haven for many pathogens looking for sweet deals, and our immune responses work constantly to prevent potentially harmful bacteria from breeding at home, at the same time, let more peaceful or beneficial bacteria thrive in our bodies.
But sometimes things go wrong.
In the case of TSS (
Whether it is caused by changes in menstruation or complications such as surgical and post-natal wound infections, burns and other types of skin protection barrier damage)S.
S. aureus and GAS can cause trouble because their release acts as "superantigen" in the body ".
"Antigen" is a catch.
All terms for molecules that can trigger an immune response to the body, such as a cold virus or an allergen.
Usually, specialized cells will devour the antigen on the spot, and then say that the cell will wear the surface protein of the antigen on its own cell membrane like clothing.
Like a war of bacteria.
Enactor, except for this heavy
It's actually training the militia.
The body learns to recognize and fight bad guys antigen
Our and voila, you have an immune system.
However, superantigens are sneaky: they skip the antigen processing steps described above and instead trigger an immediate, exaggerated immune response.
Regular antigen activation is about 0. 01% to 0.
Body 1% T-
Cells, which are immune fighters, are committed to protecting the body from pathogens, both practical and (
In the case of allergies)perceived.
Soldiers, if you want.
However, the superantigen has the ability to allow 5 to 30% of these soldiers to take action.
For example, if your body is AmericanS.
About 200 to 2,000 soldiers will be deployed for military, reserve and all antigens, while superantigens may cause about 630,000 soldiers to be activated.
This is a considerable leap in the military presence, and it is not without danger for civilian onlookers.
In TSS, the presence of superantigen triggers what is called a storm of cytokines.
Cytokines are small signaling molecules that give instructions to cells at the molecular level;
They help with things.
One of the cytokines involved in the body's defense system is called tumor necrosis factor or tumor necrosis factor;
These core regulators may lead to fever and cell death, mainly involved in the management of other immune cell forces.
When the superantigen activates the third of T-
It leads to the production of a large number of cytokines.
Tumor necrosis factor is one of the signaling molecules involved, but the body's response to danger also signals many other types of effects that stimulate inflammation and healing.
In order to win a biological battle, factor signaling molecules need help on the spot (s)
It also directs immune cells to make more signaling molecules because they need to make sure more troops arrive.
Normally, the body can control this, but in the case of a factor storm, the positive feedback loop calling on the Army's forces is off track, causing complete confusion: shock and a lot of organizational damage, and possibly even death.
When a man was colonised by S.
S. aureus or gas, the toxins they release
Those as superantigens
It is systematically absorbed and transmitted throughout the body, and the immune system will deal with this problem at this time.
The good news is that many people carry antibodies to toxins produced by these bacteria, because they are fairly common and may be encountered at some point.
Between 70 and 80% of people developed antibodies against TSST. 1(
Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 found in TSS caused by S. aureus)
By puberty, people with 90-95 percent expressed antibodies in adulthood.
The presence of the antibody indicates that the body has seen a special threat before and has overcome it;
This also means that if TSST-
Due to the colonization with S, 1 appears in the body
Aureus, the body has at least some sort of defense lined up.
This is interesting considering most TSS situations
Of course, those in the Michigan cluster
Happened to young women.
But is this really due to the development of pre-colonial antibodies, or is something else happening?
After all, young women today may not know much about the dangers of wearing tampon for a long time, as they miss the outbreak of TSS that mothers may remember or at least know.
"I don't think anyone really knows why we seem to see more TSS in young women," explains Jen Gunter via email . ".
She is a gynecologist in the San Francisco Bay area.
She introduced the topic of TSS in her blog.
"Many people do think that getting protective antibodies can be a factor.
Women with TSS tend to have lower levels of antibodies to TSST
The presence of these antibodies does increase with age.
Gunter also pointed out potential behavioral connections.
"I think it's easier for young women to use tampon, so it could be a confusion.
But even so, it's hard to say.
"It could also be reported bias," meaning young women are more likely to be diagnosed correctly than older women.
"There may be other 'master' factors that make young women more vulnerable," Gunter explained . ".
"Women with heavier menstruation are more likely to use more absorbent tampon," Gunter said . " This may mean that the relationship is relevant, not the cause, he explained.
Young women may be more likely to have a heavier period, which makes it more likely that she will use tampon that is easier to absorb.
Gunter also clarified the high-
Tampon and tam with the ability to absorb, note that it is not as simple as it looks.
It may not be enough to provide additional nutrients to bacteria alone. “[Rely]
There are other ingredients in addition to cotton and artificial silk, so these may promote bacterial growth, or in some way affect the body's ability to hold and kill toxins, "shesaid said.
Gunter pointed out that more absorbent tampon may cause more trauma to the vaginal wall and make things more complicated.
That is why it is very important to note the personal hygiene products used by women with TSS.
It is always possible for a particular brand or product to use ingredients that make the TSS more likely to develop, or to have some kind of contamination in the production process.
Even if the tampon is taken off the table completely, it will not let the TSS disappear, which further confuses the relationship between the product and the disease.
"There is a menstrual that is related to the menstrual cup, so it does indicate that this is not entirely about the ability to absorb," Gunter said . ".
"In addition, it is reported that there will be a recurrence after stopping the use of tampon, so there are many unknowns.
"With all these open questions, the case base in Michigan has become more vague.
"The reason for the increase in cases is not clear," wrote Jennifer Eisner, a spokesman for Michigan's Health and Human Services Department (MDHHS). “[It’s]
One of the reasons why we publish public information to promote health awareness is --
Medical institutions, other state health departments and Michigan residents.
"The current goal of MDHHS is to drive more awareness.
"By raising awareness, we want to make sure that women seek care more quickly after they get sick," Eisner wrote . " He also noted the need to collect more information from clinicians across the country to see if there were cases elsewhere.
As researchers continue to gain insight into the relationship between tam and tampon use, what can women do to protect themselves?
"Always use tampon with the lowest possible absorption capacity, at least every 6-
Eight hours, "Eisner wrote.
"Understand the symptoms and signs of TSS, including sudden fever, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, muscle soreness, high blood pressure and rash.
Stop using cotton strips immediately if you have symptoms and contact your doctor.
Leigh Coyne is a freelance journalist covering science, sex and sports.
She was vaccinated against rabies.
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