why did âx80x98shocking' amounts of bp oil fall to the seafloor? - absorbent material
The largest oil spill in the United States in April 2010S.
History has polluted the beach, painted birds with thick stickiness, and something completely unexpected has happened on the surface of the Gulf of Mexico (map).
From the public's point of view, a large number of marine plants, organisms and other debris larger than the state of Connecticut are speeding up the delivery of oil to the "amazing" seabed, possibly millions of gallons, according to David Holland, a chemical oceanographer at South Florida University. Petersburg. (
I saw pictures of the oil spill in National Geographic magazine. )
The phenomenon known as Ocean snow is usually like this: plankton, which are stressed by petroleum or chemicals, discharge a sticky mucus called a sea nose.
The substance sticks algae, feces and other random fragments together to form a mass similar to the falling snow. (
Related reports: "The" sea snot "explosion caused by the Gulf oil spill? ")
But scientists say something different happened in 2010 after bp's Macondo well blew out.
Holland said clay particles from the Mississippi River were mixed with cleaners used to clean up and formed a huge "dirty snowstorm ".
Then heavy oil.
Rich particles plummet to the bottom of the bay like "a perfect storm.
"For this mechanism of how oil reaches the bottom of the Sea, known as MOSSFA or marine oil snow deposits and pleadings accumulation, it is new to science.
But this is obviously not new to history.
Scientists now think it may be commonplace.
The same process may help the oil sink to the bottom of the Campiche Bay (map)
During 1979-in the southern Gulf of Mexico
According to the new study, 1980 Ixtoc leaks. (
See also the Gulf oil spill: a record number of deaths of dolphins and turtles. ")
Sediment cores, between 1,600 and 6,500 feet (
500 and 2,000
Under the surface of the bay, oil leaked 35 years later remains.
Holland says oil has been stranded in the Campiche bay for decades, suggesting that the Gulf region may still have a long time to wait for the 2010 spill to disappear.
This is a concern for tiny creatures under the sea, some of which are almost extinct.
After the BP oil spill, a worker used absorbent materials to clean up the oil on Queen Beth Island at the mouth of baratari, Lanna.
After the 2010 leak, Holland and his colleagues began to get confused after the leak by finding so much oil at the bottom of the bay.
They reported that as many as 10% of the diarrhea oilâ x80 whwhich officially estimated 100 million gallons (
0. 38 billion liters)
Settled under the sea.
Bottoming usually takes weeks and months.
So, Uta Passow, a biooceanographer at the University of California, said, "within days of the disaster, oil was packaged in some unknown way into Ocean Snow and transported to the bottom of the sea", Santa Barbara.
Paso said that by remaking the formula for the Ocean snot, Ocean Snow, oil and clay in the lab experiment, the team simulated the process on a smaller scale and untied it
The three published scientific papers describe in detail how a storm in the ocean transported oil to the bottom of the sea.
Submarine deposits contain petroleum by-products linked to the BP oil well and algae that live only on the surface of the bay.
BP objected to the findings.
"While Ocean Snow is a known phenomenon, there is no evidence that it has led to the deposition of an undersea" oil pool "," said Jeff Morrell, senior vice president of the United States, BP. S.
Communication and external affairs.
"Extensive sampling and rigorous chemical analysis indicate that the only significant concentration of Macondo oil found in offshore environmental sediment was found near the wellhead," Morrell said . ". (
See the "anniversary of the first Gulf oil spill: resilience in the unknown. ")
Hollander disagreed, saying that they used a "very accurate" technique to measure oil in the sediment.
"We can see it and others can see it, it's not our fantasy," he said . ".
On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig triggered the worst oil spill in the United States. S. history.
Scientists say most of the oil spilled from the explosion
The well plunged to the bottom.
He added that as for BP's claim that oil remained near the well, it had been "fairly well dismissed ".
Last year, evidence released by a team of researchers showed that the hydrocarbon "plume" in Macondo had contaminated about 1,200 square miles (
3,200 square kilometers)of ocean floor.
Once oil flows into the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico north, it is bad news for undersea residents. Some scientists say oil has almost killed an undersea resident.
Eight months after the leak, chemical oceanographer Patrick schroegh and his colleagues
In the surface sediment collected at three sites in the Gulf of Mexico, it is called a cell organism with Kong worm.
Kong worms make up the bottom of the Gulf food chain and are usually eaten by larger bottom residents such as caterpillars, bipedal animals and small fish. (
See the interaction of Bay life. )
According to this study, in two oil-coated sites, the density of the kongworm was 80-93% lower than that of the uncoated site.
The scientists wrote that the decline may be due to a compound known to be toxic to conworms, which has been going on for years.
But BP's Morrell said the investigation into the two sites was not enough to draw any conclusions about the creatures.
In addition, he said that the study did not provide any evidence that oil was the cause of the decline in oil, nor did it provide evidence of toxic sediment.
"The researchers acknowledge that they are not able to directly determine the reasons for the decline in density at both sites," he said . ".
Is cleaning even worse?
When the response team diverted the Mississippi River to oil, Clay poured into the BaySwamp jam
The team found that clay particles contributed the most to sinking oil.
This is because the clay is easily glued to the oil, producing tighter particles that sink to the bottom faster. (
View satellite images of the evolution of the Gulf oil spill. )
After the Deepwater Horizon oil leak, the oil mixed with the dispersing agent floats on the surface of the bay.
But scientists say up to 10% of the spilled oil quickly sinks into the sea after mixing with a sticky substance that is ejected from plankton and clay from the Mississippi River.
The cleanup may have inadvertently contributed to the process in other ways.
The burning oil released the dirty blizzard that easily attached to the ocean snot and enhanced it.
The dispersing agent also splits the oil into small parts that are easier to gather together. (
See also "Gulf oil cleaners trample on nesting birds ". ")
"What you're trying to do as a responder is to make the worst happen," said Nancy Skinner, director of the Coast Research Response Center at the New Hampshire University.
This may mean choosing between the destruction of the beaches, birds and undersea residents.
Now that the respondents know about the new deposition process, they can control how much clay flows into the bay when washing the swamp.
There is a lot of determination now, and I regret it later, "Kinner said.
The real question for me is, if this happens again, are we in a position to respond better?
I think the answer is yes.
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