the women and their children’s health (watch) study: methods and design of a prospective cohort study in louisiana to examine the health effects from the bp oil spill - oil spill kit

by:Demi     2019-09-10
the women and their children’s health (watch) study: methods and design of a prospective cohort study in louisiana to examine the health effects from the bp oil spill  -  oil spill kit
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the largest offshore oil spill in U. S. history.
Few studies have assessed the potential health impact of the leak on Gulf Coast communities.
Health status of women and their children (WaTCH)
The study is a prospective cohort designed to investigate the medium and long term
Exposure to the effects of oil spills on physical, mental and behavioral health.
Participants from pre by phone-
List of existing individuals and families using addresses-
Sampling framework between 2012 and 2014.
Baseline interviews were provided with information on oil spill exposure, demographics, physical and mental health and health behaviour.
Women are also requested to provide a family roster from which children aged 10 to 17 are randomly selected and included in the children's sub-study.
Telephone respondents were invited to attend a family visit to measure blood samples, human body measurements, and neighborhood features. A follow-
The Up interview was completed between 2014 and 2016.
To date, 2852 women have completed baseline interviews, of which 1231 have participated in home visits and 628 children have participated in the child health sub-study. The follow-
The Up interview successfully retested 2030 Women and 454 children.
Follow-up on future plan observation
The Up survey plans to conduct a third wave of interviews in 2017.
In addition, we would like to strengthen the collection of space-related environmental data to facilitate the assessment of health risks in the study population.
In addition, various subsets of the queue are provided with opportunities to participate in behavioral intervention.
Studies currently underway are looking at the relationship between genetic and immune markers and mental health.
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the largest offshore oil spill in U. S. history.
Few studies have assessed the potential health impact of the leak on Gulf Coast communities.
Health status of women and their children (WaTCH)
The study is a prospective cohort designed to investigate the medium and long term
Exposure to the effects of oil spills on physical, mental and behavioral health.
Participants from pre by phone-
List of existing individuals and families using addresses-
Sampling framework between 2012 and 2014.
Baseline interviews were provided with information on oil spill exposure, demographics, physical and mental health and health behaviour.
Women are also requested to provide a family roster from which children aged 10 to 17 are randomly selected and included in the children's sub-study.
Telephone respondents were invited to attend a family visit to measure blood samples, human body measurements, and neighborhood features. A follow-
The Up interview was completed between 2014 and 2016.
To date, 2852 women have completed baseline interviews, of which 1231 have participated in home visits and 628 children have participated in the child health sub-study. The follow-
The Up interview successfully retested 2030 Women and 454 children.
Follow-up on future plan observation
The Up survey plans to conduct a third wave of interviews in 2017.
In addition, we would like to strengthen the collection of space-related environmental data to facilitate the assessment of health risks in the study population.
In addition, various subsets of the queue are provided with opportunities to participate in behavioral intervention.
Studies currently underway are looking at the relationship between genetic and immune markers and mental health.
Introduction The Deepwater Horizon oil spill has caused serious environmental pollution and economic consequences to communities in the affected areas.
Residents near the oil spill may be exposed to dangerous components of crude oil, including volatile organic compounds and heavy metals.
British oil (April 20, 2010 (BP)-
The operating Deepwater Horizon rig exploded 49 miles across the Mississippi River Delta in Anna state, killing 11 workers and burning for about 36 hours before sinking.
Two thousand, two million gallons of crude oil spill into the Gulf of Mexico in an area up to 68 thousand square miles in front of the sea-
After many failed attempts, the ground wellhead was finally capped in July 15, 2010.
3 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DHOS)
It is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the US oil industry, which dwarfs the scale and environmental impact of all previous oil tanker oil spills and has caused a wide range of marine and wildlife habitats.
It pollutes more than 1000 miles of beaches and swamp coastlines from Texas to Florida, and threatens the viability of Beibu Gulf commercial fisheries and tourism.
4 5 BP use to control burns and release 1.
Inject 84 million gallons of dispersed chemicals into the ecosystem to break down crude oil and employ thousands of workers and volunteers to participate in cleaningup activities.
Despite these efforts, the Gulf Coast region is still seriously affected by DHOS, the environment is damaged, tourism and fisheries are affected, and the threat to physical and mental health
Residents, clean-
Workers and volunteers.
The impact of the oil spill is the primary issue in the parish of seven Southeast Louis Anna States
New Orleans, St. Bernard, Jefferson, prakming, ravensh, Trebon, and St. Mary-
Due to its proximity to the wellhead and low altitude, it is economically dependent on fishing and other marine activities.
2 oil leakage and health for a long time, few studies
The long-term health impact of the oil spill, although from 1970 s, 2010, there were more than 350 leaks of more than 7 million tons of oil, many of which directly affected land and coastal communities.
To date, a small number of studies have been conducted on the effects of oil spills, dispersing agents and particulate matter in the air on human health, mainly focusing on direct physical, physiological and psychological effects.
8-10 kinds of crude oil and dispersing agents contain a variety of toxic ingredients, including a variety of aromatic/fatty hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide gas, heavy metals and sulfuric acid.
Exposure to these toxic components may lead to various adverse physiological effects immediately after the oil spill, including respiratory stimulation, cough and shortness of breath, and central nervous system depression.
Through social and economic disruption, DHOS can also indirectly affect human health.
13-18 the source of income for many Gulf Coast residents depends on local fisheries and tourism, which are seriously affected by DHOS and their destruction of the surrounding ecosystems.
2 19 the financial responsibility of the ensuing oil spill often has a negative impact on mental and mental health --
It is a complete family that may manifest as behavioral and physical health disorders.
A review article by 18 20 Aguilera et al examined several epidemiology studies that explored the impact on population health after exposure to oil spills, the effects of oil leakage exposure on nerves, respiratory skin and mental health were found.
A recent review concluded that the mental and physical/physiological effects of the oil spill may last for many years.
DHOS is often compared to the second largest offshore oil spill in the United States.
On 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Bay, Alaska, and spilled thousands of barrels of oil on the coast, which had a significant impact on the health of the surrounding communities.
21 22 several studies examined the health impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and observed the oil spill
People exposed reported higher levels of economic disruption and increased adverse mental health outcomes, including stress, anxiety and depression, compared to people who were not exposed to spills.
22 23 two years after the Prestige oil spill, another study was conducted to observe fishermen involved in cleaning
Increased efforts are more likely to report respiratory problems and chromosome changes than those in communities that are not involved in cleaningup activities.
24 to date, only a few studies have examined the human health effects associated with DHOS.
25 26 Peres et al. studied the physical health of women in southeast Louis Anna after DHOS and observed higher frequency of headache, shortness of breath, watery, burns, itchy eyes, reported DHOS exposure is higher than the rash and cough of women exposed to non-DHOSexposed or low-DHOS-exposed women.
An additional study examined the mental health effects of individuals living in the southern state of Luis Anna after DHOS, the report says DHOS's destruction of the family and work environment and negative mental health outcomes, especially anxiety and depression
A study in Alabama and Florida found that affected communities were more likely to report stress, anxiety and depression.
25. despite several oil spills around the world, there is less research on their impact on personal and community health, which is consistent, throughout the disaster literature, reliable and effective personal oil spill exposure measurements have not been identified or used.
1 12 determining the composition of oil spill exposure is a challenging and critical step to study and understand the impact of oil spill on human health and healthbeing.
In addition, traditional epidemiology studies on health
The impact of oil leakage is mainly focused on cleaning. up workers.
Clean though,
Up workers are the ones most likely to have direct access to crude oil, and the massive oil spill like DHOS has far-reaching implications
Has an impact on the surrounding community residents.
In particular, children are vulnerable to long-term effects
The effects of oil spills and other disasters on physical and mental health.
30 31 after DHOS, Institute of Medicine (IOM)
More research is called on to study the physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of oil spills.
32 most of the epidemiology observation studies established after the DHOS event started 1-2 years after the leak occurred, so it was not possible to obtain information about the oil leakage exposure at the time of the leak from the participants.
They therefore need some form of retrospective assessment.
Exposure can be measured directly using complex equipment or analysis, or inferred by asking a questionnaire about the presence of environmental factors of interest.
With regard to oil spills, exposure is not just a single factor in the defined environment.
Rather, it's long.
A mixture of lasting, extensive and complex chemical, physical, environmental, economic and emotional experiences faced by individuals in the community.
Sometimes, complex exposure combinations that occur in a wide geographic setting may be considered specific measures to consider a single factor in a public health setting.
The method has been proven in 33 previous oil spill studies.
Most relevant to this study was the methodology adopted by Palinkas et al in the study of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
They adopted the framework used in previous disaster studies to classify study participants based on their exposure to oil spills and subsequent events using a range of questions about physical, economic and behavioral effects.
In many studies, this method is used to study the environmental impact of oil spill exposure on communities and individuals and is adopted here.
The literature currently available for research purposes indicates an increase in physical and mental health adverse outcomes associated with oil spills, although the evidence is generally limited to those with the most exposure, such as cleaning
Workers, may not be able to generalize the wider affected communities.
In response to the IOM32 report call for a study of the impact of DHOS on health, we have established the health of women and their children (WaTCH)
The aim is to improve understanding of the impact of the oil spill community.
The study focuses on the health of adult women and their children living in the most affected areas of the state of Luis Anna.
Women are particularly vulnerable but influential.
They are often at the heart of the decision.
Making processes within the family, especially in the areas of health, support, diet and childrenrearing.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the research design, challenges in recruitment and the research population of a group of women and children from southeast Luiz Anna state.
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill has caused serious environmental pollution and economic consequences to communities in the affected areas.
Residents near the oil spill may be exposed to dangerous components of crude oil, including volatile organic compounds and heavy metals.
British oil (April 20, 2010 (BP)-
The operating Deepwater Horizon rig exploded 49 miles across the Mississippi River Delta in Anna state, killing 11 workers and burning for about 36 hours before sinking.
Two thousand, two million gallons of crude oil spill into the Gulf of Mexico in an area up to 68 thousand square miles in front of the sea-
After many failed attempts, the ground wellhead was finally capped in July 15, 2010.
3 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DHOS)
It is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the US oil industry, which dwarfs the scale and environmental impact of all previous oil tanker oil spills and has caused a wide range of marine and wildlife habitats.
It pollutes more than 1000 miles of beaches and swamp coastlines from Texas to Florida, and threatens the viability of Beibu Gulf commercial fisheries and tourism.
4 5 BP use to control burns and release 1.
Inject 84 million gallons of dispersed chemicals into the ecosystem to break down crude oil and employ thousands of workers and volunteers to participate in cleaningup activities.
Despite these efforts, the Gulf Coast region is still seriously affected by DHOS, the environment is damaged, tourism and fisheries are affected, and the threat to physical and mental health
Residents, clean-
Workers and volunteers.
The impact of the oil spill is the primary issue in the parish of seven Southeast Louis Anna States
New Orleans, St. Bernard, Jefferson, prakming, ravensh, Trebon, and St. Mary-
Due to its proximity to the wellhead and low altitude, it is economically dependent on fishing and other marine activities.
2 oil leakage and health for a long time, few studies
The long-term health impact of the oil spill, although from 1970 s, 2010, there were more than 350 leaks of more than 7 million tons of oil, many of which directly affected land and coastal communities.
To date, a small number of studies have been conducted on the effects of oil spills, dispersing agents and particulate matter in the air on human health, mainly focusing on direct physical, physiological and psychological effects.
8-10 kinds of crude oil and dispersing agents contain a variety of toxic ingredients, including a variety of aromatic/fatty hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide gas, heavy metals and sulfuric acid.
Exposure to these toxic components may lead to various adverse physiological effects immediately after the oil spill, including respiratory stimulation, cough and shortness of breath, and central nervous system depression.
Through social and economic disruption, DHOS can also indirectly affect human health.
13-18 the source of income for many Gulf Coast residents depends on local fisheries and tourism, which are seriously affected by DHOS and their destruction of the surrounding ecosystems.
2 19 the financial responsibility of the ensuing oil spill often has a negative impact on mental and mental health --
It is a complete family that may manifest as behavioral and physical health disorders.
A review article by 18 20 Aguilera et al examined several epidemiology studies that explored the impact on population health after exposure to oil spills, the effects of oil leakage exposure on nerves, respiratory skin and mental health were found.
A recent review concluded that the mental and physical/physiological effects of the oil spill may last for many years.
DHOS is often compared to the second largest offshore oil spill in the United States.
On 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Bay, Alaska, and spilled thousands of barrels of oil on the coast, which had a significant impact on the health of the surrounding communities.
21 22 several studies examined the health impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and observed the oil spill
People exposed reported higher levels of economic disruption and increased adverse mental health outcomes, including stress, anxiety and depression, compared to people who were not exposed to spills.
22 23 two years after the Prestige oil spill, another study was conducted to observe fishermen involved in cleaning
Increased efforts are more likely to report respiratory problems and chromosome changes than those in communities that are not involved in cleaningup activities.
24 to date, only a few studies have examined the human health effects associated with DHOS.
25 26 Peres et al. studied the physical health of women in southeast Louis Anna after DHOS and observed higher frequency of headache, shortness of breath, watery, burns, itchy eyes, reported DHOS exposure is higher than the rash and cough of women exposed to non-DHOSexposed or low-DHOS-exposed women.
An additional study examined the mental health effects of individuals living in the southern state of Luis Anna after DHOS, the report says DHOS's destruction of the family and work environment and negative mental health outcomes, especially anxiety and depression
A study in Alabama and Florida found that affected communities were more likely to report stress, anxiety and depression.
25. despite several oil spills around the world, there is less research on their impact on personal and community health, which is consistent, throughout the disaster literature, reliable and effective personal oil spill exposure measurements have not been identified or used.
1 12 determining the composition of oil spill exposure is a challenging and critical step to study and understand the impact of oil spill on human health and healthbeing.
In addition, traditional epidemiology studies on health
The impact of oil leakage is mainly focused on cleaning. up workers.
Clean though,
Up workers are the ones most likely to have direct access to crude oil, and the massive oil spill like DHOS has far-reaching implications
Has an impact on the surrounding community residents.
In particular, children are vulnerable to long-term effects
The effects of oil spills and other disasters on physical and mental health.
30 31 after DHOS, Institute of Medicine (IOM)
More research is called on to study the physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of oil spills.
32 most of the epidemiology observation studies established after the DHOS event started 1-2 years after the leak occurred, so it was not possible to obtain information about the oil leakage exposure at the time of the leak from the participants.
They therefore need some form of retrospective assessment.
Exposure can be measured directly using complex equipment or analysis, or inferred by asking a questionnaire about the presence of environmental factors of interest.
With regard to oil spills, exposure is not just a single factor in the defined environment.
Rather, it's long.
A mixture of lasting, extensive and complex chemical, physical, environmental, economic and emotional experiences faced by individuals in the community.
Sometimes, complex exposure combinations that occur in a wide geographic setting may be considered specific measures to consider a single factor in a public health setting.
The method has been proven in 33 previous oil spill studies.
Most relevant to this study was the methodology adopted by Palinkas et al in the study of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
They adopted the framework used in previous disaster studies to classify study participants based on their exposure to oil spills and subsequent events using a range of questions about physical, economic and behavioral effects.
In many studies, this method is used to study the environmental impact of oil spill exposure on communities and individuals and is adopted here.
The literature currently available for research purposes indicates an increase in physical and mental health adverse outcomes associated with oil spills, although the evidence is generally limited to those with the most exposure, such as cleaning
Workers, may not be able to generalize the wider affected communities.
In response to the IOM32 report call for a study of the impact of DHOS on health, we have established the health of women and their children (WaTCH)
The aim is to improve understanding of the impact of the oil spill community.
The study focuses on the health of adult women and their children living in the most affected areas of the state of Luis Anna.
Women are particularly vulnerable but influential.
They are often at the heart of the decision.
Making processes within the family, especially in the areas of health, support, diet and childrenrearing.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the research design, challenges in recruitment and the research population of a group of women and children from southeast Luiz Anna state.
The observational study was a prospective cohort study conducted by the Institute of Health Sciences, luanana State University (LSUHSC-NO)
School of Public Health (SPH)
Working with investigators from New York University and Colorado State University.
The main funding for the study came from the National Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIEHS)
Deep Water Horizon Research Consortium project, 35 is a 5-year, $25.
Establish community university partnerships to address the health impact of the oil spill.
The watch field survey was conducted by investigators and researchers based in LSUHSC in the state of Luis Anna. NO SPH.
The collection and management of data is concentrated in the epidemiology project of the Shanghai Institutes of Health.
The research leading group is co-represented
The main investigators, together
Investigators and community liaisons
Under the authorization of the NIEHS Deepwater consortium program, the Community Advisory Committee (CAB)
Meetings were held to provide input on topics of recruitment and dissemination of research results.
All observation agreements have been approved by the Institutional Review Committee (IRBs)at LSUHSC-
No, New York University and Colorado State University
The study also received a confidential certificate from the National Institutes of Health, which helps researchers protect the privacy of participants in sensitive health human studies
Related research.
These certificates protect mandatory legal requirements for study participants to identify information or identify features, such as court orders and subpoenas.
The observation study focuses on resilience, mental health and physical health of communities and individuals.
WaTCH consists of two main projects :(1)
Acute and Long-Term examination
Long-term effects of DHOS and their cleaning on human health
An increase in adult women in the community; and (2)
How the influence of oil leakage affects the emotional well
The existence of children and adolescents
Research Design, Subject Recognition, recruitment and admission our overall strategy is to establish a group of women and their children living in the seven most affected parishes (counties)
Southeast of the state of Luis Anna: New Orleans, St. Bernard, Jefferson, prakming, ravensh, Trebon, and St. Mary.
As shown in Figure 1, this identified area includes a population of approximately people.
All participants were from this primary research base.
Download the new tabDownload powerpoint map of the state of Luis Anna with the shadow of the Research Foundation in figure 1.
Eligibility requirements for adult women initially include between the ages of 18 and 80;
Can complete the study interview in English;
No cognitive impairment;
And lived in one of the research parishes in April 20, 2010.
We excluded women involved in the NIEHS GuLF Study, an in-school study investigating the health impact of DHOS cleaningup workers.
After about 6 months, we lowered the age limit to 50 years in order to better recruit more women with qualified adolescent children.
The population of adult women is from
List of existing individuals and families using addresses-
Basic sampling framework provided by marketing system group (MSG). Address-
Computerized delivery order documents using the US Postal Service based on sampling (CDS)
, MSG license.
The CDS database contains more than 100% residential addresses, covering nearly all households in the United States.
The CDS file contains a variety of address types, including City Style, country routes, Post Office mailboxes, seasonal, vacant, and drop-off points.
The sampling frame can be geographically by any level (
Postal or census)
From the census to the national census.
In addition, a combination of address types can be used to meet the requirements of the research project.
Family Traits of age and gender were added to the ABS sample to further limit the framework.
Mobile phone samples are not included due to limited target numbers and high cost.
We did it twice.
To ensure that we conducted a sample survey of individuals in New Orleans and Jefferson Parish (two larger, more urban parishes.
We conducted a detailed sample survey of the Northern urban sections of these parishes because it is unlikely that a major oil spill will occur.
MSG provides a sampling framework for approximately 48 000 valid addresses with phone numbers.
In addition to the two city parishes, we are trying to ensure a proportional representation of the 2010 census of all census areas in the five citiesparish region.
We also recruited more women involved in the study through friends, neighbors, other parties or direct marketing.
We expect some interested volunteers to hear about the study through community efforts to strengthen recruitment.
We have a taxi to help with recruitment through several community engagement and community outreach recruitment activities.
Women who contact us by means of a research website or by calling a toll-free phone will be considered for the study if they meet the above eligibility criteria.
Recruitment begins when a potential female participant receives a letter of introduction describing the nature of the study (
Telephone interview, home visit, blood draw, urine and remuneration)
And invite them to attend.
Subsequently, 1-2 weeks later, a trained interviewer called to screen recruitment calls to determine the availability of qualified adult women residing at that address, providing further details about the investigation, she was formally required to attend.
If we do not have a valid phone number for a potential participant, we will send another letter asking her to either call a toll-free phone number or use a secure portal indicating her willingness to participate in the study.
The main researchers of LSUHSC conducted interviews --
In New Orleans, there is no record at the LSU Public Policy Research Lab in Baton Rouge.
All interviewers were trained and quality control measures were implemented to ensure that they were standardized.
The interviewer was asked to call at least 12 times.
After updating the contact information using the business tracking service, the call attempt will also be repeated (Accurint).
Between August and 2012 and June 20, they called for 42 Pax 649 telephone numbers to try to reach an observation study that may be in line with the participation of women.
Telephone interviews with women who agree to participate and provide verbal consent (
IRB approved waiver of the informed consent document for the telephone interview section of the study)
It's managed with a computer.
Assist in telephone interview
Collect and manage research data using REDCap (
Research on electronic data capture
The electronic data capture tool is hosted in the Epidemiology Data Center of lsuhschsmoothed.
REDCap is a secure web-
An application-based program designed to support research data capture provides (1)
An intuitive interface for verifying data input; (2)
Tracking Audit Tracking of data operations and export programs; (3)
Download seamless data to the automatic export program of the general statistical software package; and (4)
A program that imports data from an external source.
37 questionnaires include detailed questions about demographic features, history of physical and mental health, oil spills or cleanliness
Up, drug use, lifestyle features such as diet, smoking, drinking, physical activity, career history, previous hurricanes and other exposure information.
There are also questions about health care, social support, social capital, loss of resources, economic or economic difficulties and other resilience measures.
The reasons for the decline in the number of participants were recorded.
Many of the questionnaire tools used have been verified and made public before (
NIEHS Bay research or PhenX kit)
Or obtained from other epidemiology studies or national surveys
29 38 home visits and collection of biological samples at the end of the baseline telephone interview, all participants were required to attend a home visit where biological samples (
Blood or saliva and urine)
Human body measurement (
Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference)
Will be collected.
If the study object agrees to the home visit, the information is forwarded to the independent contractor responsible for the home visit.
Registered Medical Assistant (CMAs)
Who can do venous incision and interview (
Mother and Child Studies described below)
It was recruited through clinical resource provider DOCS Global.
CMAs completed home visits with training, supervision and supplies provided centrally by the observation research coordinator.
Each participant provided written informed consent to the human body measurements and collection of biological samples, as well as documents for telephone interviews.
Blood samples are required for each participant;
However, if she is unable or unwilling to do so, she is required to use Oragene self-Collection set (DNA Genotek).
If the participant does not wish to make a home visit but agrees to provide a sample of saliva, Oragene self-
The collection kit is mailed directly to the participants.
Weight obtained by CMA (kg), height (m)
Hip and waist (cm)
Measure three times using a digital scale and tape measure.
CMA collected about 16 cc of blood for each subject (4 ml tube)
Urine of 30 cc.
The following blood samples were obtained: Two Lavender acetate tubes for plasma and white blood cells;
Two Red Pipe jacking without serum and clot additives.
The collected samples were transported to LSUHSC SPHLaboratory for processing and storage within 24 hours of collection.
Blood samples were processed and serum, plasma and Buffalo coat were extracted.
Long-term storage of urine and serum, plasma and Buffalo coated sub-samples at-80 °c.
According to the standard protocol, saliva samples are stored at room temperature.
Use Qiagen QIAamp blood mini kit to extract DNA from cells contained in Buffalo coat and use DNA Genotek prepIT to extract DNA from saliva-C2D kit.
The extracted DNA is stored at-20 °c.
Participants in this study were paid for time and energy.
Initially, the pay for the telephone interview was $25, the pay for the home visit was $20, the pay for the mother interview was $15, and the pay for the child interview was $15.
After about six months, the remuneration of adult women increased to $40, the remuneration for telephone interviews increased to $25, and the remuneration for human measurements and biological specimen collection increased to $25.
Prior to the home visit, CMA conducted a community assessment of the direct blocks around the participant's home.
Neighborhood audits were used to assess the level of social confusion on the participants' streets as a measure of environmental stress.
The instrument has been previously validated and adapted according to the previous study 39, including 25 projects, rating the blocks and streets of each participant's residence.
Information was obtained about land use and condition, as well as the presence of traffic flow, street condition, noise, smell, abandoned cars, garbage/broken glass, the presence of recreational facilities and graffiti.
The child impact sub-study before the termination of the adult telephone survey reported that at the time of the oil spill, a woman living at home with a child aged 10 to 17 was invited to participate in the child impact sub-study.
The interviewer described the child impact sub-study and asked if the respondent was willing to involve her child.
According to the participation agreement, one child aged 10-17 years in each family was randomly selected from all children aged 10-17 years in the home.
If the selected child is physically or mentally unable to participate, another child is randomly selected from the family. A face-to-
When women and selected children were available for interviews, face-to-face interviews were arranged.
We strive to bring this visit in parallel with the home visit of women to collect biological specimens.
If a woman refuses to attend a family visit to a biological sample collection but has a qualified child, we provide her with an opportunity to complete the mother and child section as a telephone interview.
As mentioned above, home visits were made for women and children for participating adult women to obtain consent and biological specimen collection.
For those women with children involved, CMA received additional parental consent and child consent during home visits before the parent-child interview began.
Mother and child interviews in the child impact sub-study included (1)
Conduct a 45-minute interview with the child's mother or guardian, including parents and family
Level factors concerning children's physical and mental health, academic performance, behavior and development;
Family needs and resources;
Neighborhood features of supplementary telephone surveys; and 2)
Conduct a 15-minute interview with the child about his or her thoughts and feelings about oil spills, coping strategies, despair, stress and behavior.
Women are paid an additional $25 for completing the child assessment interview and children are paid $25. All in-
Home data collection for women and children was completed using iPads running the iformm app.
Iformat is a cloud.
Secure form based on mobile data acquisition platform
Data-based collection with or without an Internet connection.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Data collection at the location and residence of CMAs and research participants also took place.
To ensure consistency, safety and secrecy of participants, CMAs was trained and standardized and regularly re-evaluated activities during the study.
Ongoing review of interviews and biological samples to collect data to identify process or procedural differences between researchers and provide feedback when needed to be corrected to maintain consistency.
In addition, the project manager randomly selected 10% study participants after a telephone interview and completed the study visit to assess CMA performance and solicit feedback on home visits. Follow-
Tracking investigation-up (wave II)
Telephone surveys were conducted from September 2014 to June 2016. The follow-
Up questions re-evaluated the information collected in baseline telephone interviews, including demographics, physical and mental health, behavior and other contacts.
New modules have been added, including issues to assess the following personal features: protection and loss of resources, resilience, social capital, perceived stress, life events and post-
Trauma Stress
Women in the observation study were reconnected to include a second wave of follow-upup.
Each adult observation participant received a letter describing the nature of the second wave of questionnaires followed by a phone call from LSUHSC --NO-
Based on the interviewer's willingness to determine the participants to complete the follow-up workup survey.
The interviewer called at least 12 times.
Repeat the call cycle after sending a reminder post card.
Contact information was updated using Accurint.
To complete the second wave of questionnaires, participants received $40 in time and energy.
For the child's sub-study, briefly as follows
The mother and their children were interviewed by telephone.
Attempts were made to find the mother and their children and a similar recontact method was taken above.
The child interview question reassessed the information collected during the baseline interview, including demographic, physical and mental health, social behavior, and school information.
The time and energy of the mother and the child is also $25 per person.
Queue retention participants receive annual newsletters, holiday cards, and other emails, including annual reminders to update contact information through the research website (sph. lsuhsc. edu/watch)
Or call for free.
In addition to providing information about the study, these emails keep the participant's contact database running properlyto-date.
Research participants are expected to conduct telephone interviews every 2-3 years based on existing research support funding.
DHOS exposureTo DHOS will be exposed, and the waTCH study uses six oil spill exposure issues developed by Palinkas et al 23 for the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, three additional financial implications for DHOS and the smell of oil from participants were added.
Table 1 lists watch interview items used to assess the potential risks of DHOS.
Since these nine projects are highly relevant, we used a data-
The driving method for exploratory factor analysis, used to quantify exposure to DHOS that conform to the variance-variance matrix of observed variables, followed by confirmatory factor analysis to examine the relationship between indicator variables and potential variables.
View this table: View the inline View pop-up table 1 in the telephone survey response rate ask the DHOS exposure item response rate of adult watch participants to use the American Public Opinion Research Association (AAPOR)
Standard definition of survey.
40. it is defined as the number of full interviews with respondents divided by the number of qualified respondents in the sample and the estimated proportion of unknown cases that may actually qualify.
Of the 42 Lumia 649 phone numbers that were attempted to be dialed, the 16 kbps 732 numbers were considered unqualified (
Disconnect the number, no woman at the phone number, business, etc)
, And 22 u2009 998 number is an unknown qualification (
Never picked up before qualifying, hungup). Sixty-
It is well known that seven people are eligible to attend but refuse to attend or are unable to contact.
Final baseline (wave I)
The sample included 2852 women who completed the telephone questionnaire.
Therefore, the response rate is estimated to be the number of times the interview has been completed (n=2852)
Divided by the number of eligible respondents in the sample (
Rejected by interview plus 67)
Plus the estimated proportion of unknown eligibility cases that may actually be eligible.
For this ratio, we used an estimate of about 15% suggested by AAPOR.
Because we have almost 23 thousand cases where we don't know if we are qualified (i. e.
, In our sampling framework, people we can't reach can't even determine their qualifications, let alone agree that they are involved in the study)
This means that 3450 cases are also included in the response rate denominator.
The overall response rate was therefore 45% per cent.
Our cooperation rate (
Number of interviews divided by number of interviews and number of rejections)was 98%.
Statistical analysis we use summary statistics to show demographic and exposure profiles of women surveyed in waves I and II.
Statistical analysis using sas v. 9.
4, in addition to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using MPlus V7 (
Mussen & Mussen, Los Angeles, California, United States of America).
The observation organization and management observation study is a prospective cohort study conducted by the Institute of Health Sciences, lewianna State University (LSUHSC-NO)
School of Public Health (SPH)
Working with investigators from New York University and Colorado State University.
The main funding for the study came from the National Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIEHS)
Deep Water Horizon Research Consortium project, 35 is a 5-year, $25.
Establish community university partnerships to address the health impact of the oil spill.
The watch field survey was conducted by investigators and researchers based in LSUHSC in the state of Luis Anna. NO SPH.
The collection and management of data is concentrated in the epidemiology project of the Shanghai Institutes of Health.
The research leading group is co-represented
The main investigators, together
Investigators and community liaisons
Under the authorization of the NIEHS Deepwater consortium program, the Community Advisory Committee (CAB)
Meetings were held to provide input on topics of recruitment and dissemination of research results.
All observation agreements have been approved by the Institutional Review Committee (IRBs)at LSUHSC-
No, New York University and Colorado State University
The study also received a confidential certificate from the National Institutes of Health, which helps researchers protect the privacy of participants in sensitive health human studies
Related research.
These certificates protect mandatory legal requirements for study participants to identify information or identify features, such as court orders and subpoenas.
The observation study focuses on resilience, mental health and physical health of communities and individuals.
WaTCH consists of two main projects :(1)
Acute and Long-Term examination
Long-term effects of DHOS and their cleaning on human health
An increase in adult women in the community; and (2)
How the influence of oil leakage affects the emotional well
The existence of children and adolescents
Research Design, Subject Recognition, recruitment and admission our overall strategy is to establish a group of women and their children living in the seven most affected parishes (counties)
Southeast of the state of Luis Anna: New Orleans, St. Bernard, Jefferson, prakming, ravensh, Trebon, and St. Mary.
As shown in Figure 1, this identified area includes a population of approximately people.
All participants were from this primary research base.
Download the new tabDownload powerpoint map of the state of Luis Anna with the shadow of the Research Foundation in figure 1.
Eligibility requirements for adult women initially include between the ages of 18 and 80;
Can complete the study interview in English;
No cognitive impairment;
And lived in one of the research parishes in April 20, 2010.
We excluded women involved in the NIEHS GuLF Study, an in-school study investigating the health impact of DHOS cleaningup workers.
After about 6 months, we lowered the age limit to 50 years in order to better recruit more women with qualified adolescent children.
The population of adult women is from
List of existing individuals and families using addresses-
Basic sampling framework provided by marketing system group (MSG). Address-
Computerized delivery order documents using the US Postal Service based on sampling (CDS)
, MSG license.
The CDS database contains more than 100% residential addresses, covering nearly all households in the United States.
The CDS file contains a variety of address types, including City Style, country routes, Post Office mailboxes, seasonal, vacant, and drop-off points.
The sampling frame can be geographically by any level (
Postal or census)
From the census to the national census.
In addition, a combination of address types can be used to meet the requirements of the research project.
Family Traits of age and gender were added to the ABS sample to further limit the framework.
Mobile phone samples are not included due to limited target numbers and high cost.
We did it twice.
To ensure that we conducted a sample survey of individuals in New Orleans and Jefferson Parish (two larger, more urban parishes.
We conducted a detailed sample survey of the Northern urban sections of these parishes because it is unlikely that a major oil spill will occur.
MSG provides a sampling framework for approximately 48 000 valid addresses with phone numbers.
In addition to the two city parishes, we are trying to ensure a proportional representation of the 2010 census of all census areas in the five citiesparish region.
We also recruited more women involved in the study through friends, neighbors, other parties or direct marketing.
We expect some interested volunteers to hear about the study through community efforts to strengthen recruitment.
We have a taxi to help with recruitment through several community engagement and community outreach recruitment activities.
Women who contact us by means of a research website or by calling a toll-free phone will be considered for the study if they meet the above eligibility criteria.
Recruitment begins when a potential female participant receives a letter of introduction describing the nature of the study (
Telephone interview, home visit, blood draw, urine and remuneration)
And invite them to attend.
Subsequently, 1-2 weeks later, a trained interviewer called to screen recruitment calls to determine the availability of qualified adult women residing at that address, providing further details about the investigation, she was formally required to attend.
If we do not have a valid phone number for a potential participant, we will send another letter asking her to either call a toll-free phone number or use a secure portal indicating her willingness to participate in the study.
The main researchers of LSUHSC conducted interviews --
In New Orleans, there is no record at the LSU Public Policy Research Lab in Baton Rouge.
All interviewers were trained and quality control measures were implemented to ensure that they were standardized.
The interviewer was asked to call at least 12 times.
After updating the contact information using the business tracking service, the call attempt will also be repeated (Accurint).
Between August and 2012 and June 20, they called for 42 Pax 649 telephone numbers to try to reach an observation study that may be in line with the participation of women.
Telephone interviews with women who agree to participate and provide verbal consent (
IRB approved waiver of the informed consent document for the telephone interview section of the study)
It's managed with a computer.
Assist in telephone interview
Collect and manage research data using REDCap (
Research on electronic data capture
The electronic data capture tool is hosted in the Epidemiology Data Center of lsuhschsmoothed.
REDCap is a secure web-
An application-based program designed to support research data capture provides (1)
An intuitive interface for verifying data input; (2)
Tracking Audit Tracking of data operations and export programs; (3)
Download seamless data to the automatic export program of the general statistical software package; and (4)
A program that imports data from an external source.
37 questionnaires include detailed questions about demographic features, history of physical and mental health, oil spills or cleanliness
Up, drug use, lifestyle features such as diet, smoking, drinking, physical activity, career history, previous hurricanes and other exposure information.
There are also questions about health care, social support, social capital, loss of resources, economic or economic difficulties and other resilience measures.
The reasons for the decline in the number of participants were recorded.
Many of the questionnaire tools used have been verified and made public before (
NIEHS Bay research or PhenX kit)
Or obtained from other epidemiology studies or national surveys
29 38 home visits and collection of biological samples at the end of the baseline telephone interview, all participants were required to attend a home visit where biological samples (
Blood or saliva and urine)
Human body measurement (
Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference)
Will be collected.
If the study object agrees to the home visit, the information is forwarded to the independent contractor responsible for the home visit.
Registered Medical Assistant (CMAs)
Who can do venous incision and interview (
Mother and Child Studies described below)
It was recruited through clinical resource provider DOCS Global.
CMAs completed home visits with training, supervision and supplies provided centrally by the observation research coordinator.
Each participant provided written informed consent to the human body measurements and collection of biological samples, as well as documents for telephone interviews.
Blood samples are required for each participant;
However, if she is unable or unwilling to do so, she is required to use Oragene self-Collection set (DNA Genotek).
If the participant does not wish to make a home visit but agrees to provide a sample of saliva, Oragene self-
The collection kit is mailed directly to the participants.
Weight obtained by CMA (kg), height (m)
Hip and waist (cm)
Measure three times using a digital scale and tape measure.
CMA collected about 16 cc of blood for each subject (4 ml tube)
Urine of 30 cc.
The following blood samples were obtained: Two Lavender acetate tubes for plasma and white blood cells;
Two Red Pipe jacking without serum and clot additives.
The collected samples were transported to LSUHSC SPHLaboratory for processing and storage within 24 hours of collection.
Blood samples were processed and serum, plasma and Buffalo coat were extracted.
Long-term storage of urine and serum, plasma and Buffalo coated sub-samples at-80 °c.
According to the standard protocol, saliva samples are stored at room temperature.
Use Qiagen QIAamp blood mini kit to extract DNA from cells contained in Buffalo coat and use DNA Genotek prepIT to extract DNA from saliva-C2D kit.
The extracted DNA is stored at-20 °c.
Participants in this study were paid for time and energy.
Initially, the pay for the telephone interview was $25, the pay for the home visit was $20, the pay for the mother interview was $15, and the pay for the child interview was $15.
After about six months, the remuneration of adult women increased to $40, the remuneration for telephone interviews increased to $25, and the remuneration for human measurements and biological specimen collection increased to $25.
Prior to the home visit, CMA conducted a community assessment of the direct blocks around the participant's home.
Neighborhood audits were used to assess the level of social confusion on the participants' streets as a measure of environmental stress.
The instrument has been previously validated and adapted according to the previous study 39, including 25 projects, rating the blocks and streets of each participant's residence.
Information was obtained about land use and condition, as well as the presence of traffic flow, street condition, noise, smell, abandoned cars, garbage/broken glass, the presence of recreational facilities and graffiti.
The child impact sub-study before the termination of the adult telephone survey reported that at the time of the oil spill, a woman living at home with a child aged 10 to 17 was invited to participate in the child impact sub-study.
The interviewer described the child impact sub-study and asked if the respondent was willing to involve her child.
According to the participation agreement, one child aged 10-17 years in each family was randomly selected from all children aged 10-17 years in the home.
If the selected child is physically or mentally unable to participate, another child is randomly selected from the family. A face-to-
When women and selected children were available for interviews, face-to-face interviews were arranged.
We strive to bring this visit in parallel with the home visit of women to collect biological specimens.
If a woman refuses to attend a family visit to a biological sample collection but has a qualified child, we provide her with an opportunity to complete the mother and child section as a telephone interview.
As mentioned above, home visits were made for women and children for participating adult women to obtain consent and biological specimen collection.
For those women with children involved, CMA received additional parental consent and child consent during home visits before the parent-child interview began.
Mother and child interviews in the child impact sub-study included (1)
Conduct a 45-minute interview with the child's mother or guardian, including parents and family
Level factors concerning children's physical and mental health, academic performance, behavior and development;
Family needs and resources;
Neighborhood features of supplementary telephone surveys; and 2)
Conduct a 15-minute interview with the child about his or her thoughts and feelings about oil spills, coping strategies, despair, stress and behavior.
Women are paid an additional $25 for completing the child assessment interview and children are paid $25. All in-
Home data collection for women and children was completed using iPads running the iformm app.
Iformat is a cloud.
Secure form based on mobile data acquisition platform
Data-based collection with or without an Internet connection.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Data collection at the location and residence of CMAs and research participants also took place.
To ensure consistency, safety and secrecy of participants, CMAs was trained and standardized and regularly re-evaluated activities during the study.
Ongoing review of interviews and biological samples to collect data to identify process or procedural differences between researchers and provide feedback when needed to be corrected to maintain consistency.
In addition, the project manager randomly selected 10% study participants after a telephone interview and completed the study visit to assess CMA performance and solicit feedback on home visits. Follow-
Tracking investigation-up (wave II)
Telephone surveys were conducted from September 2014 to June 2016. The follow-
Up questions re-evaluated the information collected in baseline telephone interviews, including demographics, physical and mental health, behavior and other contacts.
New modules have been added, including issues to assess the following personal features: protection and loss of resources, resilience, social capital, perceived stress, life events and post-
Trauma Stress
Women in the observation study were reconnected to include a second wave of follow-upup.
Each adult observation participant received a letter describing the nature of the second wave of questionnaires followed by a phone call from LSUHSC --NO-
Based on the interviewer's willingness to determine the participants to complete the follow-up workup survey.
The interviewer called at least 12 times.
Repeat the call cycle after sending a reminder post card.
Contact information was updated using Accurint.
To complete the second wave of questionnaires, participants received $40 in time and energy.
For the child's sub-study, briefly as follows
The mother and their children were interviewed by telephone.
Attempts were made to find the mother and their children and a similar recontact method was taken above.
The child interview question reassessed the information collected during the baseline interview, including demographic, physical and mental health, social behavior, and school information.
The time and energy of the mother and the child is also $25 per person.
Queue retention participants receive annual newsletters, holiday cards, and other emails, including annual reminders to update contact information through the research website (sph. lsuhsc. edu/watch)
Or call for free.
In addition to providing information about the study, these emails keep the participant's contact database running properlyto-date.
Research participants are expected to conduct telephone interviews every 2-3 years based on existing research support funding.
DHOS exposureTo DHOS will be exposed, and the waTCH study uses six oil spill exposure issues developed by Palinkas et al 23 for the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, three additional financial implications for DHOS and the smell of oil from participants were added.
Table 1 lists watch interview items used to assess the potential risks of DHOS.
Since these nine projects are highly relevant, we used a data-
The driving method for exploratory factor analysis, used to quantify exposure to DHOS that conform to the variance-variance matrix of observed variables, followed by confirmatory factor analysis to examine the relationship between indicator variables and potential variables.
View this table: View the inline View pop-up table 1 in the telephone survey response rate ask the DHOS exposure item response rate of adult watch participants to use the American Public Opinion Research Association (AAPOR)
Standard definition of survey.
40. it is defined as the number of full interviews with respondents divided by the number of qualified respondents in the sample and the estimated proportion of unknown cases that may actually qualify.
Of the 42 Lumia 649 phone numbers that were attempted to be dialed, the 16 kbps 732 numbers were considered unqualified (
Disconnect the number, no woman at the phone number, business, etc)
, And 22 u2009 998 number is an unknown qualification (
Never picked up before qualifying, hungup). Sixty-
It is well known that seven people are eligible to attend but refuse to attend or are unable to contact.
Final baseline (wave I)
The sample included 2852 women who completed the telephone questionnaire.
Therefore, the response rate is estimated to be the number of times the interview has been completed (n=2852)
Divided by the number of eligible respondents in the sample (
Rejected by interview plus 67)
Plus the estimated proportion of unknown eligibility cases that may actually be eligible.
For this ratio, we used an estimate of about 15% suggested by AAPOR.
Because we have almost 23 thousand cases where we don't know if we are qualified (i. e.
, In our sampling framework, people we can't reach can't even determine their qualifications, let alone agree that they are involved in the study)
This means that 3450 cases are also included in the response rate denominator.
The overall response rate was therefore 45% per cent.
Our cooperation rate (
Number of interviews divided by number of interviews and number of rejections)was 98%.
Statistical analysis we use summary statistics to show demographic and exposure profiles of women surveyed in waves I and II.
Statistical analysis using sas v. 9.
4, in addition to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using MPlus V7 (
Mussen & Mussen, Los Angeles, California, United States of America).
A total of 2852 women completed baseline telephone interviews between July 2012 and August 2014.
As mentioned earlier, the response rate and cooperation rate were 45% and 98%, respectively.
Individuals who voluntarily participated in the study accounted for less than 5% of the I wave sample.
2788 women completed the full interview and 64 women completed more than 50% of the questions but did not complete the whole interview.
The average time from the oil spill to the first telephone interview was 3. 1 years.
Of the 2852 women, 1231 women (43%)
During a home visit, 1058 women successfully received blood (37%)
And urine from 1176 (41%).
In addition, 221 women (8%)
Provide us with saliva samples through home visits or self-examination
Collect and deliver overnight.
628 children and their mothers were identified and successfully recruited.
View this table: View online view pop-up table 2 observe baseline wave I demographic features of 2852 adult women in baseline wave I subject demographic stability 2 show 28 52 women in the cohort
The average age of adult women is 45 years.
For seven years, most of the population studied was White (56%)
Black 34%, 6. 3% other race; 3.
5% of people choose not to report to the competition.
About 30000 of women report that their families earn less than $ 28% a year, and 20% of women report drinking at present, and women report smoking at present.
About 70% reported less education than a university degree, and 43% reported full-time work.
Slightly more than 5% reported poor health and 15% reported no health insurance.
5 of the 7 coastal parishes also assigned participants relatively evenly;
The smaller proportion of respondents in Plaquemines and St Bernard Parish reflects the smaller size and lower density of their parish population.
After evaluating the fit index and explanatory of each factor solution,
Factor solutions were found to be best suited, explaining the difference of about 57%.
Model fitting statistics from confirmatory factor analysis show that the degree of fit of these two data is acceptable
Factor solution (χ2=116. 11, p
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