the rachel maddow show, transcript 06/11/10 - oil absorbent mats
Host Rachel Madou: since BP's Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded on April 20 and sank on Earth Day two days later, there has been a key story about the crisis that caused it.
A key story about the explosion.
I think what the sinking rig is doing is still not fully reported.
It's millions of gallons of oil already on the Gulf of Mexico and the coast, BP and the US oil company. S.
The government has done little to clean up the water and protect the coast.
Whether BP is now diverting oil from the bottom of the sea to a safe ship, it is already a disaster.
The oil already in the water, those huge underwater plume, and the oil on the surface, must be stored at sea and taken out of the water.
The need to do it and do it well is urgent and ongoing and has not yet been done.
During this hour, we continue our efforts to articulate the key elements of the country's biggest story. (Start Video)(
Start Video Editing)ADM.
Sade Allen in the BP oil spill
Accident commander: We had our first oil contact on the Mississippi Bay and some islands in the West.
The state of Luis Anna has been affected and now the threat has shifted to Mississippi and Alabama. (END VIDEO CLIP)
Sharon: this is Admiral Sade Allen, who led the government's response to the British oil disaster, explaining what the winds from the south and west are bringing now.
They brought this: oil on the barrier islands in Alabama and Mississippi.
They also brought reports of the oil slick that can be seen in the water nine miles off the Florida coast, as well as preparations to try to prevent the oil from landing in places such as Pensacola.
This is all the same except for the 125 miles of the Luiz Anna coastline that has been hit by oil so far.
There are beaches and beaches along the coastline of the state of Luis Anna.
But most of what was hit
Most of the oil attacks were not on the beach.
Most of them look like this. Land like this.
Land like this is life and death.
Not only for the wild animals that live there, boys, hello, they also have some wild animals, land like this is life and death to a greater extent.
For all the land around it that is not like the rest of the land here, it means life and death.
When a hurricane comes to the shore from the sea, the storm pushes the water to the shore.
It's a big storm.
The storm is like the climax of hell.
It can be incredibly disruptive.
When Hurricane Katrina hit the area five years ago, it was 20-
The foot storm struck and headed to shalmet, the state of LA. Look at that.
Now, here's a smaller 15-to understand the contrast-
The hurricane hit slyll in Anna state.
Still not good, not the same.
What's the difference between the two results?
A large part: Wetlands
Every 2, they say.
The seven-square-mile wetland through the storm brought 1 feet of the storm to the community behind the wetland.
So the difference, the mathematical difference between 20-
A level 15 storm.
Between the destruction and the destruction of the Bible, the surge of foot storms proves that this is very easy, very terrible math. If every 2.
7 square miles of wetlands will save you from another 1 feet storms, so the difference between ending like Chalmette and ending like Slidell is about 13 square miles of wetlands
Even before the oil disaster, the state of Luis Anna lost 25 square miles of wetlands every year.
Understand this: in this TV show broadcast tonight, the wetland area of the size of the two football fields will disappear into the sea and become open waters. And every 2.
The 7 square miles of wetlands disappeared and when the storm inevitably arrived, the storm hit where I was sitting now.
It's not a hippie movement to save the cute little crocodile.
This is part of our country.
It turned out to be a big thing, a very important thing.
Due to oil and gas drilling, due to the priority of shipping, we have been losing this LifeRing on such a clip due to silly development decisions.
This was true before the BP oil disaster.
Would you like to know what BP's oil disaster will do to the wetlands and the neon lights that are already flashing in the city? (END VIDEOTAPE)(Start Video)
Hey, it's not fake.
This is not a Disney version of the swamp, there is fake swamp noise.
This is Jean Lafitte National Historic Park and Protected area outside New Orleans.
I'm with David mouth.
He is the director of planning and resource management here.
Thank you very much, David, for talking to us.
We appreciate it.
DAVID mmouth, jean lafitte National Historic Park and Reserve: Thank you for coming to the park.
So, bring me here because I feel like I'm off the edge of the world.
Which direction is New Orleans, how far is it?
New Orleans is just north of us.
About 15 miles from the French Quarter.
But the branches of New Orleans are less than two miles away. MADDOW: OK.
So, we are on the edge of the hurricane protection system, the flood protection embankment in this city.
So there's a dam between US and New Orleans.
When there is a storm in the Gulf of Mexico, this is where they pass before reaching those dikes?
That's how they came.
Of course, they used to pass more than they do now.
However, due to the loss of coastal land, thousands of acres of swamps that used to be located between the city and the Bay disappeared.
So, less and less.
So, when the storm came, Hurricane Ike, two years ago, had 200 deep water in less than 4 feet miles from us.
In this section.
I came here by kayak. there is a boardwalk.
MADDOW: as far as the Gulf oil disaster is concerned, baratariyama is one of the places where oil has been discovered and has landed. MUTH: Right.
The difference between sea and land, water and land is a bit vague, but the more time I stay here, the more I feel that all these areas are connected through waterways and wetlands.
Are you worried that you can get oil in this far inland?
MUTH: We are very optimistic because we are far enough inland and there are a lot of places to fight against oil between us, so we will not see oil so far inland.
As you have said countless times, this is an unprecedented event.
We have never been able to continue the injection without any control.
I don't know how long it will take.
So no one is doing it
You know, it's an absolute statement that we will never get oil.
What we are most worried about is the hurricane season.
Like I just told you.
When we had a storm in the Bay, a storm-
Even if it does not go ashore, it will inject a lot of water into this estuary.
Once this happens, it is possible for a lot of oil to go further inland, even further into the freshwater marsh than we thought.
I mean, that's the point.
This allows you to get to this from both directions.
On the one hand, this-
Places like this are vulnerable to oil and storms.
On the other hand, there is a reason for a place like this.
If you get that much water, like you said, outside of hurricane defense in New Orleans, there's a lot of storm impact here, which is an important part of hurricane defense in New Orleans, this is what protects the city.
This is part of protecting the city. Absolutely.
As I said, our borders are hurricane berths on the West Bank, on the outskirts of the city.
MADDOW: David mouth of the National Park administration and I are now in Dr.
Larry McKinney is executive director of the Texas A & M Gulf of Mexico Research Harte Institute in Corpus Christi. Dr.
McKinney, thank you for coming.
Larry McKinney, PROFESSOR of Texas A & m corpus dessor: It's A pleasure to be here.
From a big point of view, what is the composition of the wetland? How do—
How can we get such land?
McKinney: Well, it's a combination of things.
One is the right type of oil, hydrated soil, and of course, the terrain has to allow the accumulation of water, and then the particular type of plant here.
But the biggest source is water.
What we have here is that the Mississippi River is injected into this wetland, and it is because of this that it truly forms one of the greatest wetlands in the world.
MADDOW: On the whole-
I think, as a country, what do we have in terms of wetlands under 48, and as a country, what is the proportion of wetlands we have in the state of Luis Anna?
McKinney: 40% of the country's wetlands are located in this area.
That's why they are so important.
It is most of our wetlands in 48 states.
How much have we lost?
I know what we're talking about
David talked about the starting point of New Orleans on the natural causeway.
We don't think the city is moving to the coast.
But the coast is spreading to cities.
How many wetlands have we lost, why?
That is the tragedy of things.
We lose 25 to 30 square miles of wetlands every year here, which is basically the time we talk, maybe an area as large as a football field has disappeared.
Where is oil and gas extraction coming from, it has already sunk.
Of course, the Canal entering the well site is causing erosion.
So erosion and sinking are slowly devouring these wetlands.
MADDOW: David, can you explain what's going on with the wetlands? This is the Swamp wetland we just stood up, and the Swamp wetland we are now observing, how they can isolate places like New Orleans from the big storm.
What have they done to reduce the impact of the storm?
A lot of factors, one of them is very simple, it sounds strange, it's just friction.
Even water and waves are affected by friction.
So the storm has to push the water over the land, any kind of land --
The slower it is, the more it can absorb energy from what is called a storm.
About, you know, how many miles of swamps are produced-
How much less a storm.
But this is a very important factor, and this is one of the reasons why the land loss is so serious, because in the past, the buffer zone that surrounded the developed areas of South Louis Anna, not just New Orleans, but our community in the South, like Lafitte, cocoa Delhi, Houma, or other swampy places that used to have miles or even miles between them and the bay, they're not that much anymore
As a result, storms that have not had such threats in the past have become threatening.
Storms like Katrinas are absolutely devastating. The second—
And, Larry, you have-
How many rules of thumb do you have?
How much protection does a square mile of wetland provide for you to withstand the storm?
McKinney: There are a lot of ideas, but there is a common wisdom of 2.
Seven miles, about three miles of wetlands will reduce storms by about 1 feet.
So if we lose 25 a year, we lose 25 a year.
Every time I lose 2.
7 miles of wetlands, you will increase the storms borne by the communities within the wetlands. McKinney: Yes.
When you look at the coast from these wetlands, you will see the open waters on the map.
Therefore, more and more open waters, as it appears, allow-
This reduces the friction we are talking about, which allows the storm to come straight up without anything blocking it.
That's what we care about.
For some time, the whole area was almost a solid wetland.
There are a lot of small paths and those types of things that are natural, but there is no more.
When you look at the map, you can see what's going on.
Mado: OK, let's go out on the water if we can.
I mean, to understand, I think after Hurricane Katrina, the whole country began to understand the importance of wetlands and to understand why they were lost.
Now, looking at this oil disaster as a potential catastrophic cause of wetland losses, I think this is the next step that we have not yet begun to understand.
Let's see if we can help people imagine this by launching now. (END VIDEOTAPE)
MADDOW: what we saw was incredible when we got on the boat and went deep into the wetland, and then it came up.
We will be back soon. (
MADDOW: BP's oil disaster is likely to end up as much as the Gulf of Mexico itself and its coastal communities are about the survival of New Orleans.
To find out why, I went to the canal at the Barataria Reserve with two people who knew about our wetlands and what made them so important --
Not just wildlife and plants, but people living in cities.
My guests are David Mutt, director of planning and resource management at Jean Lafitte National Historic Park and Protected Areas, and Professor Larry McKinney, executive director of the Texas A & M Gulf of Mexico Research Harte Institute in Corpus Christi.
You have two options if you are asked to have a trivial chase on these two people: you can run, or you can cheat so they can only have questions about music or something, because you really don't want these people to have any questions about nature. (Start Video)
David, can you tell us where we are now?
This is a very, very old canal. MUTH: Yes.
Called Milodon (ph)
Canal. this is the name of a Riverside Plantation.
This is a back Canal.
The plantations often dredge the canals so that they can enter the natural waterways.
Lai Rui, when you see such a landscape, you will see such an open swamp. what is the effect if oil enters here, or oil enters such a landscape?
McKinney: of course, it depends on how much oil there is, but if it enters, there is no-
There's really nothing you can do but believe and hope it recovers.
But once you try to get into these types of things and clean them up, you do more damage than you do alone.
So that's why the strategy that must be taken before oil enters the wetland.
Once in, you have nothing but bad choices.
MADDOW: What is the best option in terms of protecting such land from oil erosion?
Obviously, the way we see oil going ashore now, it's been here all the time, there, the impact, the miss, the penetration, where you're not expecting it.
This is not predictable traffic.
No, that's the problem.
It won't be.
They did their best and they tried to protect the most sensitive areas, but the oil came in under water, under the boom, and under this type of thing --
When we encounter a storm, it will rush through the prosperity.
The best thing that can happen is to stop the oil flow, cycle, and try to get the swamp back up.
MADDOW: David, in terms of what Larry just said about cleaning up oil from such a site, do you think there is any cleanup technology that can work?
Are you leaving?
If there is oil in a place like this, can you imagine what the effect will be?
Usually, cleaning is more destructive than oil.
If you imagine the Exxon Valdez, they can sit high there --
Pressure water and oil from rocks and other things, you spray high pressure water here and you tear the swamp to pieces. MADDOW: Yes.
So, I agree.
I don't think so-
I can't figure out what cleanup will happen here.
Not just swamps.
As you can see here, we have, you know, we have aquatic vegetation under the surface.
That is the location of the small fish, that is the location of the shrimp, the small crab.
The whole system will be polluted by oil.
MADDOW: this is-
I think it will all come together.
There are some ways you can hope it won't show up here, most of the time you just try to shut down the flow of oil.
There is no such good way to protect it.
Once it gets into here, there is no such good cleaning method. And you—
As you said, Larry, you have to leave it.
But once these things are oily, wouldn't these wetlands disappear if the vegetation suffocates?
Aren't they just eroding?
McKinney: that's what's going to happen here.
I mean, we hope this oil spill will end eventually.
We hope it will. MADDOW: Yes.
McKinney: When Oil enters these wetlands, it kills plants on the surface of the water.
Hope it not in the hearts of the people.
But when it does, if it does, then what happens is that the whole system crashes and basically it starts eating itself.
So the wetland will come back and in a few years it will produce a lot of things like fish and shrimp.
But after that, everything went downhill and became more and more open water.
Open water is not what you want.
MADDOW: I'm sorry to slow you down, but the vegetation is gone and the vegetation supports the soil here.
As the vegetation disappears, it immediately becomes a good source of food in the short term, --
Then basically the soil will erode and you will eventually get open water.
You have lost everything the wetland has to offer.
McKinney: That's right.
These plants are everything here.
They are the source of food, they are the source of habitat, they connect the whole system together.
When they disappeared, it was all over.
Although it releases a lot of nutrients, the animals here are very
Ability to take care-
People have become accustomed to these nutrients and are growing rapidly in the population.
So, we'll see it for a while after all this, and we'll think it's restored.
The shrimp will come back. The red fish will come.
But in a few years, we will notice that it will go downhill slowly, because it will be open water, and it will not be something that wetland plants have created.
MADDOW: as far as the place we are in is concerned, David, and what the park authority has done in some of the other areas of the park authority that are already oily, seeing that this disaster is coming, what preparations did you make, all of these properties, some of which are park service hotels, how did you prepare?
Park: what the Park authority has been trying to do is get baseline data first, come in and collect water samples and soil samples, and we can compare them with photos if there is damage.
When the oil arrives, we can prove what the oil has done to the system in order to get the recycling from the responsible party.
MADDOW: Larry, I know at the Hart Institute, you were able to make some estimates about the extent of the potential damage here, what this oil disaster might do in terms of losses.
What is your estimate?
MCKINNEY: Well, we used half a million acres of estimates and we thought it was the worst case.
If so, we look at the ecosystem services provided by these wetlands, namely, flood services and infiltration, as well as commercial and recreational fishing.
Basically, our number is $1.
A loss of 6 billion per year.
MADDOW: the wetlands associated with the leak lost 500 acres. That was your—
Is this your early guess?
McKinney: early and badcase scenario.
We're just trying to pick the numbers that some people will give us, and the worst part is that this may happen, and of course, as this continues, i'm not sure it might be the worst.
MADDOW: for an audience in a country, trying to get us to know what that means, to convey this to people who have never been to the state of Luis Anna and have never seen such a landscape.
I have never seen such a thing before today.
How important is this to the country?
McKinney: people may not be aware of this, but 40% of people across the United States drain and form these wetlands here.
So everything we do is done in the upper reaches of the state of NEAs, Iowa, or any state in the United States.
So we have to deal with it.
One thing that happened here is that because the system can no longer handle it, we are on the beach here, on the river here, with a dead zone of 5,000 square miles per year.
So we have this.
We have been mining oil and gas from these wetlands for years.
It's a great service for US-40% of our crude oil comes from the Gulf of Mexico and 20% from wetlands here.
These wetlands produce more seafood than the entire east coast of the United States.
So basically what we're talking about is
This is basically American toilet. it's American sushi bar. it's our gas station. So—
Don't combine these three things. (CROSSTALK)
But that's who we are.
What is this? this thing is huge-
The entire delta here is a huge processing plant in Central America. MADDOW: Yes.
McKinney: Unfortunately, we didn't treat it very well. But it—
But the problem is, it's a very flexible system.
Because it can accept all these punishments, it has been receiving the punishment and still produces fish and shellfish in its quantity.
What is worrying is how many times can it be knocked down?
You have Katrina, Ivan, Rita.
Now you have an oil spill here.
Constantly banging on the system.
Frankly, you know, you can only get knocked down many times before you can't stand up, which is a matter of great concern to all of us.
MADDOW: what can be done differently in terms of policy, engineering approach to better take care of the entire Delta, the entire wetland ecosystem, rather than what we are already doing?
I think it comes down to two points, Rachel.
One is that we must all understand that the whole country must understand our interests here and be willing to strengthen and restore these wetlands and get rid of channelization, when we are unable to return the water to the wetland, we will add these nutrients and deposits and then rebuild them.
We have to do that.
Second, we will continue to need oil and gas.
We will have to deal with this problem.
But we can't do it like we used.
Obviously, in order to be as safe as possible, we need to consider a lot of things, because the risk is the environment we are in now, and we can't afford this risk.
Larry, David, thank you both so much.
Thank you very much for your time and expertise to help us understand.
You all scared me and totally inspired me, the best combination of days in the swamp.
Thank you. (END VIDEOTAPE)
MADDOW: you can't fully understand how bad the BP oil disaster is until you see it with your own eyes.
I'm trying to convey this personal experience to you. coming up next. (
Start Video Editing)
President barack obama: We have deployed more than 3 million feet of total prosperity to stop oil from going ashore.
Today, more than 100,000 feet of the boom is pouring into the parish of the state of Luis Anna, which is at the biggest risk of oil.
Alan: In the last 48 hours, we have actually deployed 30 miles of prosperity there.
Obama: trying to get more prosperity where needed, for example.
Alan: We continue to grow to Alabama. (End Video Clip)
MADDOW: all talk about prosperity should inspire confidence.
BP is daily bragging on the Deepwater Horizon Response website about how much prosperity they have deployed.
They deployed more than 2 on Wednesday.
Fence boom 7 million.
They say they have deployed more than 2.
The 6 million-foot absorbent boom.
On Thursday, they said they had deployed more than 2.
2 million-foot enclosure boom and no extra dust-absorbing boom.
This is more than 30,000 feet of containment boom from the day before.
It's like all these numbers give us the feeling of progress, right?
We really have to lick this thing with all these numbers, all these thriving steps, right?
Well, how much did that boom look like I saw on a trip to the Bay? Un-
Because there was no one around to maintain it, it was tied to the pickets and the anchors piled up on the shore to do nothing. (Start Video)(on camera)
: If you don't know anything about how to use a boom to protect the coastline from oil, if you don't know anything about anything you want to stay away from the coastline, you may also know that it shouldn't be how it looks.
What we saw here
We are in Camillo Bay, right in the back water near Grand Island, Anna state.
What you see here is on this small barrier island, the water-absorbing boom piled up on this small land here.
Have you seen these bamboo poles? They all stand up.
The bamboo poles behind me all reached out.
These should be anchors that hold the absorbing arm.
It's not that easy to use.
We're with the doctor.
Mike Bloom from Duran
He's a professor of coastal swamp ecology.
Thank you for coming here with us, Mike.
Mike Bloom from Durham University: You're welcome.
Nice to be here.
MADDOW: It's this --
This is wrong, right?
BLUM: No, it didn't do the work as deployed and designed.
You will want it fixed in place.
Even in bad weather conditions, we won't have such bad weather today. MADDOW: Yes.
A few miles an hour.
You can see that it was pushed off the anchor and pushed to the swamp.
MADDOW: don't stop blowing when we think of different available technologies-
Okay, not even to prevent that explosion.
Not even to get the oil out of the water, but to keep the oil at sea, basically, we're talking about the absorption boom like this, the other-
Another kind of prosperity that basically has different names.
Bloom: we can-
BLUM: transfer oil, control oil.
So, you can either absorb oil with these boom.
You transfer the oil with other sturdy boom. BLUM: Right.
Or that's it?
Bloom: that's it, except we have pom-
Poms, we have mats, absorption pads, you want to absorb the oil once it's absorbed into the swamp.
You want to get it out of the swamp.
In terms of technical terms, it is often called pom-
Multi-metal oxygen salts, water-absorbing floor mats. MADDOW: OK.
But this was-that once -
Once the oil does come ashore.
Bloom: That's right. That‘s right.
So, I feel like a layman who knows nothing about it --
Once oil falls into the water, we are not very good at keeping it at sea. BLUM: No.
So if you compare the technical aspects of this, we have a billion dollar investment in drilling technology, highly advanced drilling technology, bamboo poles and suction pads, this allows us to reach a mile deep offshore.
Of course, drilling technology also has a lot of investment and huge demand, but investment is also needed in response to work.
MADDOW: how much better has reaction effort been in the last 30 years?
As drilling gets deeper and deeper, oil companies are becoming more profitable, so much so that you can't even write fairy tales in situations where it sounds too crazy, how many-
How much improvement has technology made when things go wrong?
Bloom: most of the investments in intelligence and research were made at around 1979 of the post-80 s.
Since about 80 s, there has been little work done and little research funding has been put into response work.
Even with understanding remediation techniques, how do you go about understanding what is available in the natural community, what kind of simple technologies, and what kind of advanced technologies can be achieved in the last 25 years has made little progress.
MADDOW: So, as a scholar, as a professor working in this field, you know, professors and graduate programs that are supported by the industry are trying to get academic support in this area
The intellectual aspect of this, some kind of intellectual firepower for these things? BLUM: No. No.
Of course, there is a personal effort and there is certainly a personal interest in investing in remedial and recovery studies.
But so far, investment in engineering and drilling technology has surpassed it.
When it comes to ecology, one of the problems is that it prevents gas exchange when you have such a gloss.
So, when microorganisms degrade oil, oxygen is captured or stripped out of water and soil.
So, you have a surface coating, you don't have oxygen exchange, and then the microbes you get are basically taking all the oxygen out of the water.
Essentially, it's like a huge dead zone.
MADDOW: from the run-off in Mississippi, there was a dead zone here before the leak, right? BLUM: Exactly.
So every summer, due to fertilization, the influx of fertilizer from the Midwest, a huge death zone comes to the surface, all the way through the Ohio Valley and deposits along the Mississippi coast --
Huge dead zone of hundreds of square kilometers.
So, something like that could happen with oil.
MADDOW: So, you get this really thin gloss on the water, but you get these spheres.
Our captain here says it will become very thin when the weather gets warmer.
It will gather more overnight.
Sometimes it's here in the morning, it's more what you'll see than it's here after a whole day of heat.
What is that slogan?
What are their signs except oil?
"You almost saw it when you first saw it in the water, you thought it was a piece of garbage, you know, or some sort of garbage here.
Maybe even some dead sea creature.
Then you notice that it has the luster of the gas station around it.
This is the consistency of what is floating in the spots.
You can see that there is some vegetation here. it is global.
This is how it looks.
You know, you see it on the camera, you think, you want to touch it and see what it looks like.
Once you see it in person and smell it, the desire to touch it disappears.
Look, this is not over yet.
"Except for oil," my ass. (END VIDEOTAPE)
MADDOW: when we were on the water today, we went to a very small island at the mouth of Barataria Bay, which was flooded with oil.
We really want to see it and we learn something from it.
But I have to tell you that there is one of the most disgusting things I have ever done in my life.
The incredible footage we shot there, and the terrible things we learned about the islands like this, will come up next. (
MADDOW: After getting in close contact with the oil ball that contaminated Caminada Bay, I think I experienced evil in its final physical performance.
When Professor Duran Mike Bloom and I arrived at the nearby oil-soaked island, I found that my most beautiful definition of the word "mean" needed to be updated. (Start Video)(Start Video)
We're at the entrance to baratari? BLUM: Exactly.
Obviously, there is a lot of oil here.
You have the same globe as we saw on the road.
On the way over in the Bay.
This is how they look on land.
This is my favorite pen. Not anymore.
What I want to know is what happens once oil lands like this?
Does oil flow in the Everglades in a way that we don't really understand?
Bloom: Well, what we understand now is that when oil deposits through waves, as we see it now, it accumulates.
It enters the soil directly and covers the soil.
So you don't have a gas exchange and you basically get an oxygen-free layer that has nothing to breathe.
MADDOW: lack of oxygen.
Blocking oxygen. Bloom: no oxygen.
MADDOW: So, obviously, it's not very substantial, we put a layer of oil on a small island and it's becoming less substantial and more vulnerable to erosion.
Because there is oil on the island, the island is in danger of disappearing. BLUM: Exactly.
So, cover the surface of the soil and plants with oil, and if that's enough as it is now, you can see that it kills the plants where it comes into contact, choking them to death
You lose the anchor provided by the plants and you will quickly erode the islands.
These islands are endangered species or islands inhabited and bred by endangered species like brown pelicans.
So, Mike, even if we want to be here, we have to go through this absorption tide here.
Some of them are obviously doing-
Stop some oil
I mean, it was obviously dirty and it played some roles.
But we didn't drive here.
Obviously, it has a big break, and this kind of thing is not set up in a way that looks effective.
Prosperity is not worthless.
It's just a worthless way to do it, right? BLUM: Right.
Therefore, the way prosperity is implemented is not effective.
It is not as efficient as technology can provide.
What we need is more people to implement and maintain prosperity on the ground.
Of course, it is possible for thousands of people to carry out prosperity effectively.
If they are trained and if they are deployed well then we will get more protection than we do now.
MADDOW: because the research and development of the oil industry is almost entirely committed to drilling, more production, not mitigation and cleanup, the big picture is like this.
Mitigation and cleanup technologies remain the same.
It's not pointless, but it does require a lot of manpower and attention.
Bloom: That's right.
MADDOW: no matter how much manpower is put into the Bay Area now, it is clear that it is not enough to develop properly. BLUM: No.
Once again so prosperous, is the first line of defense.
If implemented well, it can actually provide the second and third lines of defense.
One thing to point out is that there are thousands of people calling BP, which shows the technologies that are being developed and are likely to be implemented.
The problem is that it will take years to evaluate effectiveness.
So we have a history of prosperity.
We know how it works and we know how to implement it.
These alternative technologies that may be applied
There is no assessment process of any kind.
So even if you have the best solution, you have to go through the proper channels.
You have to show this through a schedule.
The technology is worth further investment.
MADDOW: since then, most of the technology, most of the resources, most of the research on clean-up and containment technologies have taken place in their 70 s, in their 80 s. BLUM: Exactly.
They have been busy counting their money. BLUM: Well-
So if you consider it from a product development perspective, BP and other petroleum organizations can invest in technologies such as prosperity or alternative technologies
The timeline for product development can be extended from several years to several decades. MADDOW: Yes.
Of course we have time.
We have learned a lot since the Ixtoc I explosion in late 1970.
This is a good sign of need.
But from a business perspective, there is no such incentive and no investment to implement.
MADDOW: So, think about the research that hasn't been done yet, the technology that hasn't been tested yet, and the better ideas that haven't been pursued, there's the whole problem of the dispersing agent.
Basically, our argument is that we know that the dispersing agent is toxic, but it is better to put the toxic dispersing agent on the oil to avoid a concentrated oil mass going ashore.
The dispersing agent may make the situation less common.
So this is the smaller of the two evils.
What do you think?
BLUM: So, when we use the dispersing agent at sea, we obviously don't know what the consequences are.
In fact, there has been no experiment, and the conditions are unknown.
What we know now, even from the small studies we do in this regard, if you have a comparison, if you have other options --
There's obviously no best oil.
Oil or dispersed oil.
Dispersed oil has the potential to be more toxic than the oil itself, and has a more significant impact on the coastal conditions of the swamp.
It is very concentrated.
You would think it would just be washed away, but I really-
The dispersing agent is just a strange soap.
So, will the dispersing agent make the oil worse?
We deal with this problem from an ecological point of view. BLUM: Exactly.
So if you think about it
This is certainly something that may be easier to manage.
You can see that they may be naturally broken down by tides and physical actions. MADDOW: Yes.
BLUM: Dispersed oil creates a gloss that penetrates the soil.
Again, it eliminates the potential for oxygen exchange.
So you're talking about a situation where you can't even really see what's going on.
But more or less, no oxygen.
Without oxygen, you lose plants, animals and fish.
Everything you want to maintain in the Everglades is likely to be taken away. (END VIDEOTAPE)
MADDOW: when I was in the state of Luis Anna, I went to another island, a magical place called Queen Beth Island, where the BP oil disaster caused decades
For a long time, the best environmental planning in the state of Luis Anna is out of date.
Containment dome or no containment dome, there has been an almost unattended crisis in the Bay Area.
When we come back, we will see it with our own eyes. (
I recently spent some time in the water on Grand Island, Luis Anna.
I haven't been out for a long time.
But when I got back to the shore, I was surprised to find that I was really dizzy and a little sick because I didn't have much oil on the water.
That's why I went out of oil.
This is what I saw. (Start Video)(on camera)
: The smell here is very strong now.
I don't know anything about the level of toxicity and air quality and this stuff.
But if I was in a place on land, it smelled so strong, I would-
My instinct is to leave and breathe the fresh air.
When there is no fresh air on so many open waters, you will feel claustrophobic fear and fear.
We're at the Barataria pass.
It's in Fort Livingston.
This basically marks the beginning of the bay.
This is where we go to the Bay.
Now you can see that our oil sucks.
All these little balls, these dark brown balls.
It's smaller than the globalization we saw yesterday, but much broader.
These are not individual. This is -
We are in a place full of luster, in a place where the oil has just solidified, there are many different parts.
Now, there's a lot of action here.
You can see some heavy-
The Coast Guard moved quickly behind us.
This inspires confidence more than the other prosperity we see.
You'll see some teams trying to hold oil on the surface and have someone come up with the oil pump.
But we are in a very chaotic situation.
One thing we can't tell you where we are because you can thank your cable company we have no smello-
The vision is not there yet, but on a very, very bad day it smells like a gas station.
I'm going to tell you a story about Queen Beth Island.
Queen Beth Island is a barrier island.
In the past century, the state of Luis Anna has lost about 40% of its barrier islands.
When I say "lost", I mean they become open waters.
They sank into the bay.
They sank into the sea.
The main reason for this is people-made.
This is our decision on shipping, dams, canals.
And Queen Beth island next to Highway 1980.
Part of it has sunk 1 feet in the past decade.
Queen Beth island in the 1950 s covers an area of 45 acres.
It had shrunk to 17 acres by 1989, and by then people began to get scared.
The reason people start to panic is because Queen bys Island is where the brown pelican was born.
Brown pelican is a state bird in the state of Luis Anna.
There's Louis Anna-
At the age of 1960, what is the opposite of honor, so that its state birds are basically extinct in this state.
They are trying to bring it back.
Queen bys Island is the place where brown pelicans rebuild their nests and raise young birds.
So, in 1989, when the water became clear --
Washed Queen Beth Island, the island may disappear, and when all the vegetation on the island is gone, it sinks 1 feet every ten years, so because the water has just been washed, so let it corrosion more and everyone is freaking out.
Thanks to the coastal wetland planning, Conservation and Restoration Act, which brings comprehensive
A scale effort to save Queen Beth Island.
They built one.
A dam made of shells, and to prevent it from shrinking, it is on the side of the island.
They were built on the natural ridges of the island.
They piled up the soil there and planted it there so that the island had more foothold.
They dug a lot of dredging from the Bay to the island to try to save it.
This is really a complete one. court press.
Do you know?
The Pelican is back.
Pelicans nest here.
The replica supports hundreds of pairs of pelicans, and the brown pelicans are back.
It's gone extinct.
This island is a big reason.
It takes a lot of effort to save it.
They put 30,000 tons of rock around the island, trying to save it, thus saving the birds in the state of Luis Anna.
Queen Beth Island is a very successful story.
This is Queen Beth Island right now . . . . . . I know it looks really bad, but it's really bad here.
You can see all the pelicans on the island and they seem to do their best in the prosperity here.
However, we are floating here at a gas station with oil balls and shine everywhere.
Look, the Pelican is trying to clean himself up.
You know, the Pelicans will clean themselves up.
They are taking in oil.
So once you see them taking this oil, it doesn't matter how effective it is to try to clean yourself.
They died after eating the oil. (
MADDOW: no one can go deep into the sea like a broken Deepwater Horizon Pipeline.
As the BP oil disaster continues, we all feel helpless and powerless.
But regardless of the pipe on the bottom of the sea, the pipe on the bottom of the sea has caused a crisis. The tens of millions of gallons of oil it dumped into the water are a crisis, it should not make us feel helpless and powerless.
It should make us angry because it contains oil on the water and keeps it off the coast and taking it out of the water is not a goal that ordinary people can't reach to help.
What is needed is the old technology, the low technology, the better way to apply than the technology already applied.
No one has been able to explain to me why we can't seem to have done this part of the disaster response properly.
BP's oil disaster is not just happening on the bottom of the ocean.
It is already in the water, on the shore and on the wetland.
In the Sun, there is no new technology to make it easy to transfer and clean up oil.
But, frankly, there are some existing technologies that we don't want to use properly.
It was a disaster.
This is a man-made disaster that needs attention and needs to be fixed now.
We will continue to pay attention to this program at 9: 00. m.
Every night in the east.
We hope to see you again.
Thanks for watching.
This is a report card in a hurry.
This copy may not be in final form and may be updated.
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