the battle for guantánamo - revive detoxifying foot pads

by:Demi     2019-09-14
the battle for guantánamo  -  revive detoxifying foot pads
Written by TIM GOLDENSEPT17, 20061.
Warning from Shaker AamerCol.
On April 2005, Mike benghana took over as warden of Guantanamo Bay.
He has always wanted to be sent to Iraq.
Among the senior officers of the Army's military police force, the work of commanding the guards at the United States detection camp in Cuba was considered not particularly challenging and a bit risky for a career.
He believes that this means leaving his family for at least a year to manage the small rebellion of hundreds of angry, accused terrorists.
"Is this what I think when I go to bed at night?
"Almost a year later, when he eats mosquitoes on sultry Cuban nights, he asks. “No.
The 45-year-old has received marching orders from the commander of the US military Joint Task Force at Guantanamo. Gen. Jay W. Hood.
A few weeks ago, General Hood sent former chiefs of his security operations and two other senior officials to engage with female subordinates.
He is considered a firm detail.
Bumgarner said his tolerance for misjudgment was low and his instructions to the colonel were brief: he should protect the security of the detainees and his guards.
He should prevent escape.
He should also study the Geneva III Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war and start to think about how to make Guantanamo more in line with its rules.
It has been three years since President Bush announced that the United States will not be bound by any part of the Geneva treaty in its fight against terrorism.
He ordered the American army to treat prisoners in a way that was "consistent" with the convention, but did not explain what that meant.
Bumgarner believes that there seems to be some changes to the task now.
He was asked to be more specific.
Bumghana posted ads at his crowded bungalow headquarters in the joint detention operation Group at Guantanamo, where his operations officers looked up the Convention on the Internet and printed a copy.
After nearly 24 years as a military police officer, bonghana was well aware of the document.
It was clear to him that many rights would never apply to Guantanamo detainees.
No one will allow the distribution of "musical instruments" to terrorist suspects, as 1940s
The usual practice of the times for captured soldiers of another army.
No one would pay the detainees an allowance for spending in the base canteen.
But the task is much more complicated than cutting and pasting where he can.
In a way, boumghana believes he is being asked to weigh the extent to which the military should improve the lives of prisoners, who the president and his aides call some of the most dangerous terrorists.
Or, as the colonel told me in our first conversation at Guantanamo: "How do you deal with what the president of the United States and the Secretary of Defense call the worst?
At that time, in the spring of 2005, he had little time to think about an answer.
Tensions in the camp escalated as detainees tested new rotation of Army and Navy guards.
Most of the 530 prisoners held in Guantanamo at the time were classified as "disobedience ".
"The two isolation areas where prisoners who attacked the guards are already full.
In the other two blocks, detainees were detained for minor violations.
"People are there waiting for the time to get in and serve them," says Bumgarner . ".
In the old place of the camp, detainees sometimes explode on the steel net of the cell for several hours, beating a Rattle beat on the barbed wire to the thick tropical air.
Occasionally, they slide to the guard with a metal footpad torn from the squat --
The declassified military reported the style of the toilet.
In the United States, detainees rarely try to design sheds or knives made by violent prisoners.
But they did manage to relax and incite young guards, usually splashing them out with a mixture of body excrement known as "Cocktails.
"When Bumgarner was in command at Guantanamo, there was already News that many detainees were not actually tough terrorists that Pentagon officials claimed to be holding there.
Bumghana does not doubt that his new prisoners are in danger, but he is also not worried about getting to know them better.
When he was walking down the block of the Delta Camp, the fence-
In the heart of the prison, he soon began trying to engage some of the more influential detainees. Military and C. I. A.
Since the camp opened in January 2002, analysts have been studying the population of Guantanamo.
They noted that spokespersons for detainees often speak English and that religious leaders or "chiefs" express their opinions on Islamic law issues.
There is also a more hidden cadre whose leadership is defined by analysts as "politics" or as "military" when they can lead the protests of others ".
The intelligence officer later told me that despite this, there is still a lot of debate about who is the most important leader.
Like most of his previous guards, Bumgarner was attracted to those who spoke English.
He has little ambition.
"I 've been looking for a way to take what General Hood wants, just to have a peaceful camp," he recently recalled . ".
The initial message he gave to the detainees, he said, was "Look, if you are all willing to give back, I am willing to give you something to make your life better.
In return, he asked "not to attack my guard . ".
Bumgarner thinks he'scharge, solve-the-
The commander's question.
A bald, tongue-wrenching man speaks and Inna stretches with 250 pounds ease last month-foot-2-
He grew up in a family proud to take military service for granted and was the son of a professional sergeant.
High School in King's Hill, EnglandC.
In a small town in the foothills of Lanling, he played quarterback for the football team and applied for West Point at his father's urging.
Only a few months later, he quit the college but joined R. O. T. C.
Help him through the University of West Carolina.
At Guantanamo, he's one of those officials who seem to like to shout "honor first" out loud! ” (
Abbreviation of Camp motto "honor to defend freedom)
When a soldier salutes
Say goodbye. he likes to call-
"See you later . "
But this image may be deceptive.
Prior to its deployment to Cuba, boumghana supervised the development of detention theory at the Army Military Police School in Leonard woodburg, Missouri.
Like many military police officers, he felt very embarrassed when the Abu Ghraib scandal broke out in May 2004 and was determined to see its legacy abolished.
"We will not let this happen to us," he said . ".
At Guantanamo, boum Ghana moved quickly to try to ease tensions at the camp.
If the detainee wants the clock on the wall of the cell, he does not think they have a reason not to have them.
In response to the endless complaints made by detainees about their tap water, he persuaded Hood to approve the distribution of bottled water during meal hours.
The only stock is the soldiers themselves, filled with stars --and-
The Vanity brand Patriot selection and the strip label under the free spring.
To avoid any problems, the guard was ordered to peel off the label before the bottle was issued.
Detainees did not respond as the military authorities had hoped.
At the end of June 2005, two months after the coming to power in Bham Ghana, some prisoners went on a hunger strike calling for guards and-
The most important
Fair trial or freedom.
Although this is not the first such protest, the medical staff in the camp are worried that the number of prisoners involved in the protest is unusually high.
Shortly after the strike began, bumghana was told that there had been riots at Echo Camp, a more isolated cell on the eastern edge of the detention center.
The problem is 38-year-
The old sand is called Aamer vibrating screen.
The Colonel has not met Amir before, but he is familiar with the legend of the detainee number239 —
His guard called the professor.
They were surprised by the English he could speak and the awesome presence.
Some intelligence officials say they believe he is an important al-Qaida member in London and lived and married in London before moving to Afghanistan in the summer of 2001. (
Amir denied any relationship with al-Qaida or terrorism. )
The colonel was most concerned that Amir had given his guards a proper place to force one of the sporadic civil disobedience movements he was known.
"I finally said, 'This is it!
I will talk to him myself.
Bumgarner remembers that he rushed into a small hospital --
Aamer sat on his bunk and smoked Behind the Paint net that kept him in a corner, a white room.
"You will either start following the rules or life will become very difficult," Bumgarner recalls . ".
The colonel said that he did not intend to threaten force, but only strongly emphasized the minority privileges of Amir --
For example, he uses a toothbrush.
Hanging on the balance
Amir has a thick black beard and a ponytail. he is not interested in it.
The prisoner, who did not wear glasses, squinted for a moment and tried to look at the officer's badge.
"Colonel," he said at the end, "Don't give me this.
While Bumgarner was sitting on a white plastic chair, Aamer crossed his legs on the bunk and began to talk about his life.
He talked about his family, his trip to Afghanistan, his feelings for the United States.
He tells about the experience of working as a translator for American troops in Saudi Arabia during the first Gulf War, and later working in a coffee shop outside Atlanta.
"I think he's hanging out at the club and drinking," Bumgarner told me . ".
"He likes women.
But he said he was aware of his mistakes.
He told the colonel that Amir got a revelation, "this life of running around with women, drinking is wrong.
"Advertising is part of his charm and attracts me," Bumgarner said later . ".
"He became a man.
"Most of the conversation focused on Aamer's thoughts on the detention operation and what could be done to improve it.
It seems that the idea of Saudi Arabia may not be far from the idea of Hood.
"He meant that if you fully applied the Geneva Conventions, everything in the camp would be fine," Bumgarner recalls . ".
Almost five hours later, Amir asked the colonel if he made someone very angry.
"Otherwise, you won't be at Guantanamo.
"No one survived Guantanamo," he added . ".
"You can't live either. ”II.
As part of the military-standard Guantanamo tour, visitors are taken to a permanent location
The path winds to the northeast corner of the naval base where the prison is located.
They stopped on a hill overlooking a locked gate to the part of Fidel Castro Island.
The tour guide is usually a young naval corporal with a black Beretta pistol tied to his thigh and then tells a brief history of communism driving away American troops.
On one occasion, the corporal said, Cubans tried to cut off the American water supply.
They train floodlights in an American guard room to prevent soldiers from sleeping inside.
But this is the only trouble.
Since 1903, the United States has never given up an inch of land occupied under a disputed lease, after SpainAmerican War.
"Our presence is not as big as it was before," said Cpl, a tour guide . ". Denis R.
Earlier this year, Espinoza, 22, said.
"But we're still here. we're going to stay.
"On the meaningless land of Guantanamo Bay, the message of this trip is transparent: the United States once fought here against a dangerous, ruthless enemy, in another war that didn't seem to end.
If we did not hold on to our position at that time, the world could become darker now.
Despite strong criticism, Guantanamo's detente camp has proved to be one of the more resilient agencies in the Bush administration's fight against terrorism.
It has withstood the decision of the 2004 Supreme Court to allow prisoners to question their detention in federal courts.
Scandals over the abuse of detainees have occurred from time to time, but Guantanamo has been enduring it.
When President Bush announced extensive reforms to the detention and prosecution policy for suspected terrorists.
He said the government "will move towards the day we finally close the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay.
But by sending 14 important C. I. A.
He was held there and tried to try prisoners before the re-established military court, and in the foreseeable future he seemed to extend the life of the detention center.
Government officials acknowledge that even if more detainees are sent home and dozens of people are tried, it is easy for the United States to end contact with 150 or 200 others who want to be indefinite and not charged
As for how the military should treat these people, Washington provides only the most general guidance.
What is the impact of advertising on C. I. A.
It is not clear what prisoners may be in the camp operation.
However, Guantanamo has become a scene of extraordinary fighting between detainees and their guards.
The conflict has been exposed only a few times, such as the suicide of a prisoner in June 3.
However, it is almost impossible to see that this dynamic has developed as officers try to deal more closely with detainees, ease the harsh conditions in which they are held and require them to comply with the regulations.
The article presents views within the prison by interviewing more than 100 military and intelligence officers, guards, former detainees and others.
This shows that as the pressure between prisoners grows, some even threaten to commit suicide in protest, Bumgarner and other guards --
Relying on instinct like policy
Surprising measures have been taken to contain the unrest.
The experiment illustrates the challenges faced by the United States in continuing to detain approximately 460 people in Guantanamo indefinitely, of which only 10 were formally charged with crimes.
Perhaps it's not surprising that the military is trying to keep what's happening there secret.
Recently, when asked about his dealings with detainees and his staff officers, General Hood will only respond through a military spokesman, who said, "operational security excludes any public discussion that could endanger the lives of Guantanamo detainees or security forces.
Instead of letting Guantanamo go, the government is trying to make it smaller and less objectionable.
Ruins of Camp X
The temporary facilities where the first prisoners were kept in cages were slowly being swallowed up by the jungle.
The tour guide showed them as proof of progress at Guantanamo.
In the existing camp, a quaint neighborhood in its 50 s
Era naval base
The tour guide pointed out that Camp 6 is a new $30 million facility that imitates a county prison in southern Michigan.
But the detainees have a long memory, portraits drawn by those who are released
It's terrible sometimes and can't be verified usually
Shaping global perceptions in a way that the Bush administration cannot overcome.
Their stories are recorded in books, movies, plays, and rap music, most of which describe an Orwellian world that turns cruel, calculated, and incompetent.
"Every country has its own way to torture people," said Rustam Akhmiarov, 26. year-
The old Russians who were arrested in Pakistan and eventually killed in Guantanamo told me after their release.
"They beat you in Russia;
They broke you right away.
But Americans have their own way of driving you crazy for a while.
They try to make you feel worse every day.
Over the past two years, human rights organizations and the International Red Cross have noted some improvements.
Hood said the use of more extreme interrogation methods was limited in the months after the Abu Ghraib scandal was revealed.
However, the bigger problem caused by the indefinite detention facility at Guantanamo is --
How to prevent radicalization of detainees
How to control those who only have the least hope for freedom
Senior decision makers have never been resolved.
They were left to the officers on the ground. III.
When Colonel bangghana arrived at Guantanamo in April 2005, he suddenly realized that the army was in what he called "some sort of effort to normalize things.
"The Pentagon wants to streamline security operations as part of a push for a more modern, cheaper workforce --
Intensive detention facilities.
It also wants to show the world a more human side.
Both targets require a reduction in the level of conflict within the camp.
Following Hood's first briefing, boum Ghana put the print of the Geneva Conventions on the table and there.
"I had my staff look at it," he said . ".
"This is the only black man for me --and-
I can reach out and get something white for guidance.
At that time, White House officials remained opposed to the adoption of the most basic standard of treatment for prisoners in Geneva, which prohibits "personal dignity violations", especially humiliating and degrading treatment.
Bumgarner believes that these problems are beyond his salary.
He tried to deal with the detainees one-on-one.
"People are people," he said in a series of conversations . ".
"I always thought I could deal with anyone.
I think there is no harm in dialogue.
"A few weeks before he met Saudi prisoner Shaker Aamer, Bumgarner met a tall, wild man --
Detained in the UK with screaming eyes on guards
English accent
It was not clear what his question was, but the man quickly calmed down when the colonel asked.
"You created these problems in the way you treated us," the prisoner said . ".
A day or two later, bonghana asked the guards to send the man to the Juliet block, a small fence --
In the yard next to his command center, the Red Cross representative met with the detainees at the aluminum picnic table.
He asked the guards to untie the prisoner's hand.
"It makes them feel much better talking to you," the colonel explained . ". Prisoner No.
590, a handsome 39-year-
The old Moroccan who spent 17 years in London
After the United States began bombing Afghanistan in October 2001, he served as a chef in a series of restaurants, including Hard Rock Cafes, before traveling to Afghanistan.
The military authorities accused him of belonging to a radical Moroccan Islamist group and training at an al-Qaida camp in Afghanistan.
Intelligence officials told me they don't think he's high.
He noted that he was hospitalized for manic depression.
But his influence and self-awareness impressed the guards.
The importance gave him the nickname of the general.
Bumgarner told me that it seemed surprising that erswiidi and the commander of the detention team were sitting together.
But at that meeting on June 6, at the second meeting two days later, ersididi seized the opportunity to count the prisoner's grievances: the water was dirty and the food was terrible, he said.
The detainees were angry at the guard's habit of walking through the cell while praying, and even at the "Star"
Sometimes the pointed flag played over the distant Navy
Basic speakers during or after evening prayers.
Bumgarner later recalled that the general had "been talking about the 'dark time '".
Prisoners, for example, complain that the guards often refer to detainees in a demeaning manner and when they move the prisoners they say loudly that they are ready for the "package ".
"We are not a 'parcel, '" ervoridi told the colonel '. ".
"We are people.
After the first meeting, banghana received a piece of paper from a guard.
This is a picture of ervoridi, a map.
In a corner, it shows a shaded area marked "dark times.
From there, a path passed through the dense obstacles.
They have labels like "no packaging", "better food" and "turn off the lights.
At the end of the path, erenzidi drew an oasis with water and palm trees.
At the command center in bangghana, some of his staff were curious about the wisdom of trying to resolve these complaints.
They were used to their commanders walking around the block and talking to prisoners occasionally;
They are not used to sitting. downs.
They also do not understand why they should choose to adopt the Geneva clause and suggest whether or not detainees have the right to elect their own delegates or to participate in educational programs.
"We are people on the ground," said Major, a former operation officer of the detention team. Joseph M.
Angelo told me a while ago.
"So why should I make suggestions on what parts of the Geneva Convention we should implement?
This makes me feel a little strange.
Nevertheless, the uneasiness of the staff of Bham Ghana was not counted as compared to the response he received from the intelligence services of the Guantanamo task force.
One staff member recalled the long-standing tensions between the two military units, but the members of the joint intelligence team were "very angry" this time ".
The official and others said there was no privilege to give at Guantanamo, and that the interrogators believed they should be the one who allocated those privileges --
In exchange for the cooperation of detainees.
Prior to his deployment to Cuba in Bham Ghana, his military police superior had always stressed that he should stick to his duties and have his colleagues in the military intelligence service interrogated and analyzed.
Ben Ghana is not worried about getting out of his lane.
"I run the camp," he said . ".
Bumghana began to try to resolve the problem, he believed.
He directed the members of the security forces to stop calling the detainees "parcels ".
"In the neighborhood of compliance, he asked the guards to start turning off the lights between 10 pence. m. and 4 a. m.
During those times, stop moving the prisoners and let the detainees sleep.
In order to avoid disturbing their prayers, he ordered the guards to place a yellow traffic cone spray
Apply "P" in the cell Hall while praying ".
He showed his assistants.
The Spangled Banner "recording will be played at least three minutes before prayer.
Another senior staff officer of Bumgarner
Timothy O'Reilly, a lawyer in civilian life, began to recognize something he saw from American prisons and prisons.
"For any law enforcement or correctional officer, the ultimate Nirvana is compliance," he said earlier this year . ".
"In order to manage an effective prison, you need to have people comply with your orders, which is no different from the smallest prison and the largest --Security Prison
But on an important note, Guantanamo is clearly different from other prisons: detainees find much less incentive to follow the rules.
Military intelligence officials say exile to discipline or isolation areas is a source of status and pride for some.
Punishment is limited.
Tapping or spraying urine on a guard brings about 30 days of isolation, the longest time for any punishment set out in the Geneva rules.
There is nothing more than spending a few more years on your sentence.
O'Reilly and others have pointed out that in American prisons, prisoners may be dead enemies of prison authorities, respected by other prisoners, and still try to "run a good project "--
In order to reduce his time in prison and avoid trouble.
At Guantanamo, the rules are followed by prayer beads, a packet of chili sauce, and a slightly thicker mattress.
It will not be released on parole.
The pre-advertising detainees I met insisted that their resistance was not only because they were desperate for an uncertain future, but also because the guards were unnecessarily harsh and arbitrary.
"If people's basic human rights are respected, I don't think they will have any of these issues," said Abdul Salam Zaeef, former Taliban cabinet minister, ambassador to Pakistan
Before being released late in the summer of 2005, a prominent Afghan prisoner leader was at Guantanamo.
"There are no rules and no laws.
Any guard can do whatever they want.
"Like other small and isolated groups living under the control of more powerful forces, detainees weave complex conspiracy theories about their fate.
In a closed world where Prayer provides the structure for everyday life, the Quran is a property guard that should never be taken away, prisoners are very sensitive to any disrespect for their faith
But there are many other grievances.
I was told by some former detainees that they had been injected with psychotropic substances at Guantanamo earlier, a statement denied by military officials.
Later, detainees continued to suspect that everything had hidden agents of social control, from cloudy tap water to cell configuration.
Mohammed Al said: "These blocks are designed to keep you from rest.
On last November, Daihani, an accountant of the Kuwaiti government, was sent home.
"Metal is everywhere.
If someone loses something, you hear it.
If someone makes a loud noise or speaks, it will disturb everyone.
If there is a problem with the other end of the block, you cannot rest.
After two or three weeks, you will feel irrational.
"Although detainees come from different backgrounds and over 30 countries, there is only one real prison gang at Guantanamo.
The authorities are convinced that it is under the control of al-Qaida members.
C. A study of August 2002I. A.
Claiming that al-Qaida detainees in Guantanamo have quickly begun to "build cell leaders, other tasks will also be held responsible for welcoming newcomers, assessing trials, monitoring the security forces and providing moral support to other detainees. ” (
The study was published on the website smoking gun in July;
Two officials confirmed its authenticity to me. )
These conclusions may have been drawn from the conduct of detainees like Shaker Aamer, who spoke to him for hours at the end of June. Abdullah al-
Bahrain student Noaimi, released from Guantanamo on last November, in an interview at his home in Bahrain on June, described how Aamer initially organized their cells through pure personality forces.
"He always talks with a smile and is very outgoing," al-Noaimi said.
"He was born a leader.
Shortly after he arrived in Cuba, al-
Noaimi recalled that the detainees in the Aamer convening block refused to be weighed by medical personnel --
He said it was a largely pointless protest, but angered the guards and excited the detainees.
He added that Aamer eventually organized 48-
The community is divided into four groups, 12 people in each group, each unit is represented, and the community has a spokesperson.
"It's the same thing John McCain did in Vietnam . "Col.
Kevin Burke directed the Army's First Military Police Battalion at Guantanamo.
"You continue to resist.
"Some places in the camp are easier to manage than others.
The guards believed that some 110 Afghans at Guantanamo were relatively cooperative at the time.
They occupied much of Camp 4, which is a new wing that allows Level 1 prisoners to live in public barracks, or "very submissive" to provide their own food, free access to small amusement parks.
Most of the remaining Afghans are in camp 1, holding detainees at level 2 or "compliant.
Camp 5 only held a few games at most. security area.
However, military officials and former detainees say the rest are becoming a more united group as more prisoners are released.
They are also the vast majority of Arabs and are more likely to endure more extreme interrogation techniques such as lack of sleep, sexual humiliation and threats.
Several former detainees insisted that it was not al-Qaida that held them in Guantanamo, but a common opponent.
They developed clever ways of organizing and communicating in a standard prison way.
They used a lot of hard toothpaste to attach the information to the long lines on the clothes, and then threw them into the neighboring cells.
They shouted at the water pipe and talked between floors to the maximum extentsecurity unit.
As their frustration grows, their organizational capabilities are also affected in new ways. Advertising.
In the middle, Amir was on a heroic hunger strike against Colonel boumghana.
Rapid upgrade in June 2005.
Few of the many strikes since the beginning of 2002 have prompted doctors to force --
Feeding detainees through a gastric tube.
However, this time there is no shortage of hunger.
Only dozens of strikers.
As they have often seen before, military spokesmen see the protests as typical al-Qaida propaganda --
Trained Terrorists
Officials at Guantanamo have listed hundreds of incidents they call "manipulation, self-control . "
Behavior of injury
However, they started talking privately about how to deal with potential suicides.
At the Pentagon, officials abandoned emergency plans to deal with a body that needs to be quickly buried under Islamic law.
Senior staff at Guantanamo began to meet with General Hood regularly to oversee the strike.
Captain Navy, chief medical officer. John S. Edmondson, M. D.
Worried about the possibility of having to enforce
Food for a large number of detainees.
Medical risks are relatively low, but there are other considerations.
He will tell me later: "This is not where you want to go whenever you do surgery that the patient does not want . ".
"What priority?
The rights of patients, or their lives?
The problem is not easy.
Bumgarner quickly turned to Aamer, who has been on strike since they first met at Echo camp.
At the first meeting, he said, the prisoner had been "trying to convince me in a very subtle way that he could help control things in the camp.
He decided to consider the proposal.
In several conversations with Aamer, Bumgarner made his case: he wanted the detention operation to go more smoothly and make it easier for detainees who follow the rules.
He is prepared to approach the standards of the Geneva Conventions in certain parts of the operation, including discipline.
The colonel wants to know, what does Amir think is needed to end the hunger strike?
Aamer summarized his discussion with Bumgarner in a statement dated August.
2005, which was later given to his lawyer Clive Stafford Smith.
Inside he says hungry
The strikers requested the end of the "secret abuse program in Camp 5 "(
He did not explain)
The detainees are either tried or sent home.
At the same time, they want better medical and living conditions.
Amir wrote that the colonel promised him that "justice will eventually come to Guantanamo.
His lawyer later said the prisoner "thought it was someone he could trust ".
Bumgarner said he always tried to get the negotiations back to what he could do: to improve the living conditions of detainees moderately.
He said Amir told him: "I can turn it off if you can let me go around the camp.
"There is no precedent for accompanying consultations between detainees.
But by July 26, 2005, the number of detainees who refused to eat had reached 56, and doctors began to worry about the health of several of them.
It was decided to take action.
"I saw the opportunity to end this, and I did it," he said . ".
The colonel went to a small hospital in the detention center to visit Amir.
He was sitting on a bed with an ankle locked on the bed frame, surrounded by some other firmer hunger --strikers.
According to Bumgarner, Aamer told him that several detainees had a "vision" where three of them had to die in order to release the rest.
Nevertheless, he agreed to persuade them to abandon the protest.
His lawyer said Aamer agreed to suspend his strike on July 26 but failed to convince others.
Bumghana said he had the guards retrieve Amir from the hospital that night or the next day and greet him at Camp 5, the most spectacular --security unit.
Once entering the heavy gate, when Aamer spoke to the few most influential detainees, they crossed the cell one by one.
Amir first went to see a man named Saber Lahmar.
An Islamic scholar born in Bosnia is suspected of plotting to blow up the US Embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (
Lahmar denied involvement in the plot. )
Following the colonel and a military translator, Amir continued to cross the various classes, crouching down to talk to the other few through the location where they received the food.
His last stop is the cell of garsan. Sharbi, a 30-year-
Old Sand People who studied electrical engineering at aristprescott. Al-
Sabi was later accused in a military court of involvement in a plot by al-Qaida to bomb attacks in Afghanistan, and he was reluctant to give up the strike.
Two military officials said everyone else agreed when he finally agreed.
Bumghana said when they were ready to leave Camp 5, he asked if Amir needed to talk to some other hungry people --
There are also strikers there.
Aamer replied, "no"of-factly.
"Others will say the word.
The Colonel and his prisoner drove to Camp 2 and 3.
When they got into some blocks
Bumgarner in camouflage, Aamer is handcuffed to the chain around his waist-
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"He's seen as a rock star and we're going to go somewhere," Bumgarner recalls . ".
"I have never seen an adult --
Tough guy with a beard
Cry when you see another person.
He paused for an analogy.
"It's like I'm with Bon Jovi," he said . ".
The former detainees who witnessed these visits told me about Amir's offer in Arabic to end the hunger strike and explained that other detainees in Camp 5 agreed.
In return, he said, the military authorities promised to work to resolve the problems faced by prisoners and comply with parts of the Geneva Conventions.
The Colonel's subordinates are used to his hands.
On leadership style.
But they are more openly worried about his meeting with Amir.
One official said sharply that Saudi Arabia "has almost hypnotic effect on some people.
The other two called Aamer "Svengali ".
Bumgarner himself struggled with Aamer's frequent demands.
One morning, when Aamer was sent with other officials to inform the detainees, he prepared a new one for the Colonel: now, he wanted to move around without foot shackles, the standard for detainees to be transported outside the cell.
The ad "Listen, Shaker, don't make a big fuss about it," Bumgarner recalls . ".
"Let's start something bigger here.
I can't take you out of those chains.
"I will not go unless you handcuff me," replied the prisoner . ".
"Shaker, don't do this to me," said the colonel.
"This will only make it more difficult.
"No," he quoted Amir.
"I did nothing.
Bumgarner ordered the removal of the handcuffs.
Handcuffs are always worn.
Amir finally briefed the other prisoners.
"This is obviously a risk --
"This is not to put anyone in danger, but to perceive," Bumgarner later told me . ".
"But I think I have to do that in the end in order for things to continue.
"Former Taliban ambassador Mullah Zaeef has just finished praying in Camp 4 and a sergeant has come to his dormitory.
"Someone wants to see you," the police officer said . ".
Zaeef has never had unannounced visitors at Guantanamo before.
He found Amir waiting.
The two met at Camp 1, where they were short-lived neighbors.
Zaeef, who speaks Arabic, pointed out that many Arabs respect the leadership of Saudi Arabia.
Aamer told Zaeef about his conversation with the Colonel.
"We think their policies may become more moderate," Zaeef recalls . ".
"Or we thought they were trying to lie to us.
But we think we should see which one.
"About a year later, when I met him in Afghanistan, Zaeef still seemed a bit uncertain about what happened.
He's an elegant, professor of people who wear wires-
The Taliban favored rimmed glasses and black silk headscarves.
He described the incident in two interviews in well.
He lives in a government hostel on the outskirts of Kabul, dusty and has lived there since returning home in last September.
According to Zaeef, Aamer described the representative plan for the detainees he worked with Bumgarner --
A vague echo of the rules of the Third Geneva Convention on Prisoners --of-war camp.
The detainees in Camp 4 will choose two prisoners to represent them, one Afghan and the other.
Zaeef said that, accompanied by the guards, he went from one block to the next, explaining the situation.
After some discussion, he was elected by applause to represent all detainees in Camp 4.
"People are still very skeptical," Zaeef recalls.
Still, most of the hunger
The strikers suspended the protests before July 28.
Disciplinary issues in the neighborhood have eased.
I was told by some military officials that the atmosphere was clearly high in the camp.
Later, Bumgarner called the episode "a period of peace ".
The colonel then spoke about some of the issues raised by the detainees during the strike.
He and Amir sat at a picnic table near his office to discuss the food at the camp, and Amir insisted that the food of the detainees had been poisoned. "That's athining!
"Boum Ghana.
"I didn't see you eating these things," he said . "
At a dinner with fish bars and chips, they started to come up with a solution.
Shortly afterwards, Amir sat down with the head of the canteen, the base nutritionist, and a logistics officer of a military officer.
According to an official familiar with the meeting, Amir launched a piece of paper on which he drafted a carefully crafted two documents --
Weekly meal plan including daily suggestions for four different diets: standard menu, vegetarian-with-
For older prisoners and those with bowel problems, the choice of fish and a light diet.
Two officials said that Aamer's proposal ultimately served as the basis for a new meal plan that raised the amount of food provided to detainees every day from 2,800 calories to 4,200 calories.
After weeks of discussions with his assistant, bumghana also developed a new plan to streamline the discipline of the camp.
First four-
Hierarchy, misbehaving being punished, losing a variety of "comfort items" such as prayer beads and books, or smelling in discipline or isolation blocks.
Military officials say the system is complex and often arbitrary in its application.
The new plan requires all or nothing.
Every detainee has returned to compliance and has distributed all the comfort items generally available, including prayer beads and larger soap.
Those who violate the rules will be attributed to "basic issues" or B. I.
There is nothing in the middle.
All detainees were punished to symbolize the new order
The orange uniform will be reequipped in tan.
This change may weaken the enduring sense of shame of prisoners.
The problem, some officials say, is that the plan has been launched before enough tan clothes can be requisitioned to equip all detainees.
Some people who stayed in orange complained loudly.
"We didn't think about it like playing chess," Major Angelo said . ".
"We thought we were playing checkers.
But that doesn't work. Advertising complaint
A few days after Aamer's visit to Zaeef to explain the new plan of the prisoner's representative, a guard approached Zaeef with mysterious information.
"You're going somewhere at 6," he said . "
Zaeef was taken out of the camp at the agreed time and placed in the rumbling seat of a small John Deere utility vehicle used to transport detainees around the detention center and was driven to camp one.
The guards led him to a small fence.
In the stadium of the Alpha block, two picnic tables were placed.
The influential Egyptian religious leader Allah Mohammed Salem in the camp is known as Sheikh Allah, who is already there.
The two prisoners sat down and began to ask each other what had happened.
Four more people came in.
They include two men who Amir and he met at Camp 5: one is alnia scholar Saber Lahmar and the other is Ghassan al-
Saudi engineer Sabi.
The sixth was the former Egyptian military officer, Adle Fato al Ghazza, who holds a master's degree in economics.
Bum Ghana did not attend the meeting, but when all the detainees were seated, his deputy arrived with two other officials. Al-
Sharbi serves as an Arabic translator.
According to other officials I spoke to, the deputy conveyed a simple message: asking the six to provide input on how to improve the conditions of the camp.
Each detainee responded in turn.
"Stop abusing us," Zaeef recalls . ".
"Respect our religion and the Quran.
Respect is human because we are human.
If we are criminals, take us to court.
But let's go if we're innocent.
News of the meeting came from the camp.
Several former detainees said that the prisoners immediately began debating what was going on.
"We have never spoken to the colonel before," Abdul Aziz al-
Shammari, a teacher from Kuwait, said.
"But the tramp has always wanted to negotiate with us.
"Young Detainees put pressure on Aamer to address the issue of living conditions and to focus on the requirements of trial or release them.
"Al-Shabab said to him, 'We can't just go for small things;
We should discuss the core issues, "al-
The word "young people" or "young people" in Arabic, says Shammari. ”Mohammed al-
Dai Hani, now released Kuwaiti accountant, said that shortly after the Colonel and Amir visited his cell, Moroccan Ahmed El raqidi was called General and challenged others there, analyze the possible motives of their kidnappers.
"He said: 'Why did a colonel from the most powerful country in the world come to negotiate with detainees?
They must be under some kind of pressure.
"" The side of the skeptic bumghana is also becoming more outspoken.
"I am one of the few people who think we should have the leaders come and talk to us," the colonel admitted . ".
Other officials said Mr. Hood was clearly upset about the negotiations.
He told the assistants not to refer to the six as "the council" as the detainees did ".
Nevertheless, several officials stressed that the negotiations would never move forward if Hood did not approve the negotiations.
Advertising on Saturday evening, August.
Shortly after the first meeting of the committee, the colonel called six people again, officials said.
This time, he sat with the group himself.
Amir insisted that they should not be handcuffed or shack on their feet.
"These are leaders," he said to the Colonel . "
Bumgarner agreed and the handcuffs were also untied.
The guard, armed with pepper spray, stood by, while one immediately
The reaction team is waiting in an invisible place.
The colonel then summed up his introduction: "Here you are. I’m here.
You caught my attention.
Tell me what is wronged and we will solve it.
He added, "This place will not disappear, so we might as well make good use of it.
As Zaeef recalled, Bumgarner made several commitments: he would allow detainees to distribute religious books and try to address the problems that had arisen with the guards.
He assured the prisoners that the food was "adequate ".
Zaeef said that the most important thing the colonel promised was to send another official who was able to talk to the detainees about their "future.
Bumgarner said he only promised that the guards would "act in the spirit of the Geneva conventions" and that he would see discipline at Guantanamo consistent with its terms.
Officials said six detainees were allowed to meet separately in the fence on the following Mondayin yard.
The officers said two military translators were arranged to monitor their conversation nearby.
According to Zaeef and military officials, detainees began to use the pens and paper they received to write notes.
An official at the observation meeting interrupted their conversation, he said: they would not pass notes.
He stood up again when they insisted on keeping it secret.
However, when the officers began to confiscate the notes, some detainees stuffed them into their mouths and began to chew.
Hood announced the end of the experiment.
"The organization is no longer meeting," the colonel recalled . ".
"You won't meet them again.
The "period of peace" ended suddenly.
According to various sources
Military officer, former detainee and lawyer Clive Stafford Smith of Amir
The detainees were also angry at several incidents that took place over the weekend ahead of the second council meeting.
In one case, a prisoner was forcibly removed from his cell and was just sitting there waiting for hours of interrogation.
In another case, an inquiry by a larger criminal investigator about a Tunisian detainee ended in a violent scuffle involving a cut nose, possibly a mini
The fridge and investigators were called down from the island.
Officials say riots broke out at Camp 2 and 3 a few days after the talks ended.
Dozens of detainees tore up their cells, unscrewed their feet from the toilet, and tried to pry open the net separating them.
The guards were withdrawn from the various floors and deployed around the block.
The water and electricity were cut off, and boumghana finally boarded the megaphone with an Arabic translator to persuade the detainees to be escorted away from their destroyed cell.
It took weeks to fix it.
The guards are not sure what the leaders of the detainees are doing.
According to military and intelligence officials, there are indications that Amir and al-
There has been a dispute between Shaobi. Al-
The alleged al-Qaida bomb maker, Sharbi, once told the military review team that it was his "honor" to be classified as enemy fighters, and he declared, "May God help me against the heretic!
Paradoxically, he was considered a more pragmatic negotiator, urging detainees to work to improve the conditions of the camp.
However, Amir took a different stand and denied being involved in any radical activity.
He argued more directly, according to officials, that detainees should use the talks to put pressure on the military to try fairly or release them.
Advertisementamer told his lawyer that the military "sadly betrayed its promise every time it made it.
He accused the colonel personally.
He said he felt betrayed at the time.
But a few months later, when he told the story, he just sounded disappointed.
"We almost all like each other," he said of two Saudis, Aamer and al-Sharbi.
"I shouldn't say we like each other, but there is no hostility when we talk together. ”By mid-
On August, military commanders believed that the hunger strike they had resolved was gaining strength.
Complaints about living conditions were canceled
I was told by military officials and lawyers for detainees.
Instead, prisoners are concerned about their future legal status.
The new protests peaked after the festival.
Officials said 131 prisoners refused to eat for three consecutive days last year.
Many police questioned whether the protesters were willing to commit suicide.
Suicide is strongly prohibited under Islamic law. Abdulaziz al-
Kuwait teacher Shammari is one of the most hungry
He said he had never considered suicide.
"We see that they won't let us die," he said of military doctors . ".
"This is just the extreme side of the protests. ”Al-
Shaomari, who holds a degree from the University of Islamic law, is half-
There are also more than a dozen learned detainees, others who seek religious rulings from them on the myriad of issues in which they are imprisoned.
He said he was not aware of the relevant exceptions to the ban on suicide.
Two officials familiar with the Guantanamo intelligence report said that at some point in the late summer of 2005, a religious leader named Saber Lahmar who served in prison 6
Man council told one of the other detainees, fatwa, that suicide is legal in order to protect state secrets or defend common interests.
Officials say other detainees spoke of the prophetic dream mentioned by Shaker Aamer to Bumgarner, in which three prisoners had to die and the rest were free.
When the doctor started doing test tubes
Meet more stubborn hunger
The strike consumed medical staff.
Experts flew from the Navy hospital in Florida.
Most detainees keep their weight above or around 80% of their weight.
Ideal weight.
But doctors say that as the strike continues, some people lose weight to 75 or even under 70%.
For detainees who follow the rules, the military provides new benefits.
Extended exercise time again.
According to Hood's instructions, Gatorade and energy bar were presented during the entertainment.
Wednesday is pizza night.
The guards suggested football and volleyball matches to the obedient detainees in Camp 4.
The detainee came back and asked for a prize-two-
Pepsi bottle
The winner was awarded. (
Detainees despise Coca
Coke, said the guard. )
However, officials say the detainees changed their minds before the Games began.
They concluded that the match was a plan for the military to split them.
While increasing incentives for compliance, the colonel also tried to crack down on disruptive behavior.
A comprehensive inspection of the isolation and discipline departments was carried out.
The rules became stricter and the guards were stricter.
When isolated detainees try to yell at each other through the walls, the guards turn on the big and noisy fans and drown them.
The influence of Aamer AdvertisementWorried's left-and-right shake has also made an unusual one in boum Ghana.
In September, he moved Amir to Camp Echo, where he would be more isolated than in the isolation zone.
But the contact with the leader of the detainees has not been completely cut off.
He contacted Zaeef and assured him that he wanted to continue to improve things for submissive detainees.
He's also with garsan al-Sharbi. Al-
Sabi is described by those who know him as intelligent, almost ethereal people from a wealthy Saudi family. (
When he appeared in court in the military court, he closed his hands on the defense desk and sat calmly and told the host in simple English: "I want to make it easy for you.
I fought with America. ”)
Colonel said he found Al.
Sharbi is a useful interlocutor who has met with him many times.
After August, he never spoke to Aamer again.
The guards saw some signs that a tougher approach was working.
The number of detainees in discipline and isolation areas has dropped significantly.
It was not until later that officials began to suspect that the more aggressive detainees were so focused on hunger strikes that they did not have the energy to participate in other protests. VI.
Some officers of Colonel Bumgarner seem to be the latest group of hungry people.
The strikers were allowed to be too comfortable.
They have hospital beds and air conditioning.
Conditioning, careful nurses and choose throat lozenges to relieve the pain of their feeding tubes.
The arrangement also allows for relatively easy communication among some hospitalized detainees.
By the end of November, four or five of the strikers were already severely malnourished when they kept their weight. Edmondson said.
By sucking their esophagus, they have figured out how to suck out the contents of their stomach.
Others just vomit after feeding. On Dec.
5. the guard forces ordered five "restraint chairs" from a small manufacturer in Iowa ".
The guards hope that if stubborn detainees can be tied to their bodies during and after feeding, it may ensure that they digest the food they feed.
A few days later, a naval forensic psychiatrist arrived at Guantanamo, followed by three experts from the Missouri prison medical center.
The visitor agreed with him that the strike was a "disciplinary issue", said Bumgarner: "If you don't eat, it's the same as a suicide attempt.
The rules of the camp were violated.
"Apart from feeding prisoners in chairs, some of the more influential hunger --
The strikers were sent to Camp Echo in hopes of weakening the resolve of others.
The number of strikers in early January was 84, and it soon fell to a minority.
Counsel for the detainees were shocked.
Counsel quoted their client as saying that the detainees were tied to a chair for a few hours at a time, even if they defecate or urinate themselves.
Later, the doctor told me that they had no choice.
"I 'd rather wait," said the doctor.
Ed Munson, chief physician at the base, other officials said he opposed the restraint of the chairman.
But he added, "I really believe that we will lose one of them if we don't do something different.
In the spring of 2006, General Hood and Colonel bongana suggested that the atmosphere at Guantanamo had changed.
A few hunger
The strikers are still there.
Some young Saudis and Yemeni, and Ghassan al-Sharbi.
But the police think they are fanatics, and their threat to the smooth operation of the camp can be controlled.
Otherwise, they say, disciplinary violations and attacks against the guards would be reduced, and many detainees responded positively to new incentives for good behaviour.
Speaking late at night, Hood said he believed many young Arab detainees
Sheltered, passionate young people who went to Afghanistan to participate in what they thought was a noble jihad --
Began to see the light.
He insisted that they were not radicalized at Guantanamo.
On the contrary, with the improvement of camp conditions, their prejudice against Americans has gradually disappeared.
"They found, 'You are not that bad.
"What I think is difficult --
"The core figures have lost their positions in the past four years," Hood said . ".
"They are clearly losing their positions.
When he was ready to hand over his order to the latter Adm on April. Harry B. Harris Jr.
Hood is optimistic about the future.
"We will build the best world.
We will show the world that it is right for us to do so, "he said.
"Every provision in the Geneva Convention relating to the safe detention of detainees is complied.
At Guantanamo today.
In fact, for a long time
The American people will be proud of the discipline shown here.
Six weeks later, when the guards at Camp 1 patrolled one of the blocks, they found a detainee in a coma in his cell and had a bubble in his mouth --
Symptoms of obvious excess. “Snowball” —
The guard's suicide radio code.
Called over and over again.
A total of 5 detainees were found to have been on drugs they and others hoarded, and the guards concluded that at least 3 people had attempted suicide. (
A military spokesman said there were only two people who really wanted to commit suicide. )
Late in the afternoon of May 18, a riot broke out among the "highly compliant" detainees in Camp 4, and the guards began to search their dormitories --
Their Quran.
Officials said it was due to tablets and other contraband.
In a block of the camp, the detainees were placed on the guard, and after another guard saw a stage hanging and falsely calling out "blizzard" they rushed into the barracks
Fast Guard
The reaction fired several rounds of rubber bullets and a lot of pepper spray to control the riots.
The doctor later determined that the detainees had taken sleeping pills, anti-anxiety drugs and anti-psychiatric drugs.
Whatever they can get.
As no one took the medicine they took, it was clear that other detainees colluded in the plan. (
Later, about 20 pills were found on a prisoner's prosthetic leg. )
However, it seems that the military authorities are not sure how to deal with it.
Some officials recalled the detainee's premonition that three of them must die.
Medical staff are trying to monitor detainees with mental illness more closelyHealth issues
However, this screening clearly does not take into account the possibility that these people may decide to commit suicide for other reasons --
Like loyalty to a business.
Sometime before midnight on June 9, three young Arab men were held near a block in Camp 1 and quietly moved behind their small cell, start the rope carefully made with torn linen and clothes.
The bright lights have gone off all night.
Nevertheless, the prisoners must work quickly: the guards should walk the block every three minutes.
After the rope anchored on the steel net wall of its cells, three-Mani al-
Utabi and Yasir Talar al.
Saudi Arabia and Ali Abdullah Ahmad zaherani of Yemen
Pile the clothes under the sheets to make them look like they are asleep.
They stuffed a lot of fabric into their mouths, either to suppress their crying or to suffocate themselves.
Military officials say at least one soldier is still tied to his legs, apparently so he can't kick at the time of death.
As the ropes were pulled over their heads, the prisoners slipped to the back of the blanket they hung in the back corner of their cell and walked up their little stainless steelsteel sinks.
The decline is short.
18 inch-but adequate.
The doctor speculated that when they were found, these people had suffocated for at least 20 minutes, possibly longer.
Military and intelligence officials say 20 others
Strange inmates in the neighborhood know the suicide is in the process of being prepared.
Some may have prayed with these people, and some may have helped implement the plan, officials said.
To be sure, none of the detainees tried to alert the guards compared to most previous suicide attempts at the camp.
When doctors looked at the files of the three men, they found that they did not show signs of depression or other psychological problems.
Three people are on hunger strike.
Since August, one of them
At least two people were assessed when they gave up the protest.
A doctor recalled one of the men saying to him, "I slept well. I feel well. No problems.
"The messages these people wish to convey through death may be included in the short notes they left in Arabic.
The report has not been made public and the Navy's investigation into the suicide continues.
But the military leader at Guantanamo did not wait for the results.
They immediately concluded that these suicides were a blitz in the long-standing protests of detainees.
At a news conference hours after the suicide, Admiral Harry Harris, the new Guantanamo commander, called it an "asymmetric war. ”VII.
On a hot afternoon in June, when he was ready to give up his command, the nervous UpI and Colonel Bumgarner sat down.
He looked very tired and stressed. in his small and messy office, he plunged into the chair.
As Shaker Aamer did last summer, Bumgarner used words like "trust" and "betrayal.
"While we were talking, Bumgarner was briefly suspended while the military investigated whether he improperly disclosed confidential information to a journalist in North Carolina, before and after the suicide incident, he once reported a special article on Colonel King Hill at the headquarters in Ghana. (
He was exempted from any wrongdoing. )
But what he seems to be more concerned about is something else: did he completely misunderstand the prisoner he was trying to reach?
"We do what we can to improve their lives --
"We may have gone too far to realize the true nature of the people we are dealing with," he said . ".
"I thought they had proved themselves.
I'm ashamed to admit it, but I don't think they will commit suicide.
Bumgarner said he could not discuss suicide due to ongoing investigation by the Navy.
But several officials said the three detainees took advantage of some of the qualities of the Colonel. of-
Life reforms, including the dimming of night lights and the supply of extra clothing.
There are also signs that Ghassan al-
Two officials said Sabi was a former colonel's interlocutor and had helped plan a suicide.
Look back, Colonel.
The commander of the Military Police Battalion, Kevin Burke, said: "With a population like this, you will have a fight.
We didn't all go to kumbaya together.
But we try to find the middle ground and the tension in the camp will even disappear.
As far as we know, no one really tried to find this balance before.
It is unclear whether or when the military will try again.
In most cases, the prison is tightening.
The military has stepped up security measures to prevent further riots or deaths due to the May Day riots and suicides.
In its June ruling on the military tribunal, the Supreme Court left the government with no choice but to comply with the minimum standards of treatment contained in the Geneva Conventions.
However, other privileges and freedoms permitted by detainees may be more challenged as the population of Guantanamo is sent to a more central place and the most notorious one captured by C. I. A.
A sign of the future of Guantanamo may be the transformation of the brand Camp 6. new medium-
Security facilities will be open this summer.
It was not until this spring that the new camp reflected the conditions that Colonel boumghana and other officials hoped for, the space for public dining and the larger leisure area, detainees who meet the requirements can play football and other sports there.
The camp was rebuilt after riots and suicides.
Military officials say it will look more like Camp 5 when it finally opens
Security forces along the way
A version of this article appears on the New York version of the print on page 660, titled: War of Guantanamo.
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