temperature effects on water absorption by three different porous materials. - absorption of water
The effect of temperature on liquid water flow in porous materials is attributed to the temperature dependence of the moving viscosity and water surface tension listed in the standard physical table (e. g. Weast 1978).
The former is related to viscous flow;
The surface tension affects the capillary potential.
However, experiments often reveal behaviors that require more complex interpretation.
Nimmo and Miller (1986)
Review report on the impact of temperature on soil water content
These effects on glass beads and two different soils were also measured.
They found that, in addition to being close to saturation, the effect of temperature was greater than expected from the temperature dependence of the surface tension of pure water.
They also observed that the effect of the surface active substance appeared to increase as the temperature increased.
Grant and Bach (2002)
In a recent survey of such experiments, it was also concluded that the effect of temperature on the hydropower potential is usually several times larger than expected from the temperature dependence of the surface tension of pure water alone.
They attributed the effects to volume changes in water and stranded air, interracial tension effects associated with the solution, and the effects of temperature on multiple angles. Other papers (e. g. Constantz 1982;
Stoffregen and others. 1997)
It was also determined that the response of a stable liquid flow to temperature changes greatly exceeded the problem that could be attributed solely to the temperature dependence of the viscosity of the water movement.
Hopmans and Dane (1986a)
On the other hand, it is found that the effect of temperature on stable flow is usually consistent with the temperature dependence of the moving viscosity of water, although they also observe the effect of exceeding the surface tension.
They affect discount temperatures due to air closure.
It is difficult to generalize, but the biggest difficulty seems to appear in a non-saturated porous material where the temperature changes when the flow is "static" balanced or stable.
In terms of quality, these cases appear to be consistent with the observations made by Grant and bach man (2002).
At the same time, some of these papers describe the flow conditions and water content distribution that are difficult to control.
Stoffregen and others. (1997)
For example, an experiment describing steady upward flow in a soil column driven by 500 cm [suction]H. sub. 2]
O hold by the plate in contact with the top of the column while sucking 50 cm [H. sub. 2]
O maintenance at base. Constantz (1982)
By applying evaporation flux at the top cabin to establish an upward vertical flow, also applying constant suction at the bottom of the unsaturated column.
Unfortunately, none of these authors describe their calculation of hydraulic conductivity, whose mean value must be the integral mean value of the conductivity-
In the region of the column, the capillary potential gradient is very steep due to the gravity term (
Smiles and towels 1968).
Very few experiments involve unstable flow. Gardner (1959)
The temperature dependence of integral absorption behavior was measured;
His data is vague, but they are close to expectations based on simple theories. Bachmann et al. (2002)
The temperature dependence of the water holding curve flowing out and absorbing into some moisture-resistant and water-resistant soil was measured, but the time dependence of the water holding curve (Smiles et al. 1971)
It may affect their data when draining water.
This description describes
Steady flow experiments at 3 different constant temperatures (a)
Absorption of relatively dry fertile soil ,(b)
Absorb water with chromatography paper, and (c)
Analysis of saturated expanded clay.
From the analysis of Bruce and clutt (1956)
These experiments are simple enough to illustrate the basic physical principles of flow in 3 different physical materials.
They reveal the behavior related to the temperature dependence of the moving viscosity and the surface tension of pure water.
Glossary reference table 1 used in this article.
The equilibrium and flow theory of water in a non-saturated soil regards flow as viscous and a capillary potential associated with the surface tension of the water.
Stoffregen and others. (1997)
Provide useful summary.
We assume that the horizontal flux v of water at temperature T is described in the form of Darcy's law (1)v = -(([[mu]. sub. 293]/[[mu]. sub. T])[K. sub. 293]([THETA]))([differential](([[sigma]. sub. T]/[[sigma]. sub. 293])[[psi]. sub. 293]= -K([THETA])(([sigma]/[mu]/[([sigma]/mu]). sub. 293])([differential][psi]/[differential]X)
We use 293 K as the benchmark and T is the temperature to be measured. Thus: (i)[K. sub. 293]([THETA])
At 293 K and ([[mu]. sub. 293]/[[mu]. sub. T])x[K. sub. 293]([THETA])= [K. sub. T]([THETA])
Hydraulic conduction rate at temperature T, where [mu]
The moving viscosity of water at a temperature determined by subscript 293 orT.
Equation 1 assumes permeability ,([[mu]. sub. T])x[K. sub. T]([THETA])
, For the viscous flow measured at any T, it is independent and is only an attribute of the geometry inside the medium (Terzaghi 1923; Childs 1969;
1986b limmans and Denmark). (ii)Similarly, [[psi]. sub. 293]
Is it the suction force of 293 K and [? [psi]. sub. T]=([[sigma]. sub. T]/([[sigma]. sub. 293])x [[psi]. sub. 293]
It's the suction of T, and [sigma]
Surface tension of water in air-
Water interface at each temperature (
Philip and DeVries 1957). In addition, [THETA]
Is the water content, X is the distance.
Dimension [THETA]and X (
Therefore, K ([THETA]))
This must be consistent with each other, vary depending on the nature of the experimental material and explain for each experimental set below. Both [mu]and [sigma]
Related Properties of water and air
Water interface (Weast 1978)
We believe it has nothing to do [THETA]
Or X, so they may be grouped in the second equation of Equation 1.
Figure 1 shows how ([mu]/[sigma])and [mu]
In the experimental temperature range described here, the temperature change of pure water.
These values are standardized relative to the values of these variables at 293 K.
Include a second chart to illustrate the relatively small effect (in principle)of [sigma]
Much lower temperature.
Sensitive thanis [mu].
The slope rather than the absolute value of these graphs results in temperature effects.
The absolute value is included in the measurement of K ([THETA]). [
Figure 1 slightly]
Derive the flow equation (Richards 1931)
By linking Eqn1 to 1-
Equation of material balance of water size :(2)[differential][THETA]/[differential]t =-[differential]v/[differential]
T is X of time.
For non-equations, the first equation on the right side of equation 1 is used to generate
Stagnant flow, equation :(3)[differential][THETA]/[differential]t =[differential]/[differential]X ([D. sub. T]([THETA])[differential]([THETA])/[differential]X)in which [D. sub. T]([THETA])
The water diffusion rate at temperature is defined (
Childs and George 1948)by: (4)[D. sub. T]([THETA])= [K. sub. T]([THETA]))(d[[psi]. sub. T]/d[THETA])and where d[[psi]. sub. T]/d[THETA]
Is the slope of the moisture properties measured at T.
Alternatively, combining equation 2 with the second equation in equation 1 will produce :(5)[differential][THETA]/[differential]t =[differential]/[differential][X. sup. *]([D. sub. 293]([THETA])[differential][THETA]/[differential][X. sup. *])with (6)[X. sup. *]=[([([mu]/[sigma]). sub. T]/[([mu]/[sigma]). sub. 293]). sup. 1/2]X and (7)[D. sub. 293]([THETA])=[K. sub. 293]([THETA])(d[[psi]. sub. 293]/d[THETA])and where d[psi]/d[THETA]
Is the slope of the humidity characteristic at 293 K.
Each of our experiments includes initial and boundary conditions defined :(8)[THETA]= [[THETA]. sub. i]; X or [X. sup. *][
Greater than or equal to]0; t = 0 [THETA]= [[THETA]. sub. 0]; X or [X. sup. *]= 0;
Introduction of T> 0 boerzeman variable [LAMBDA]= X/[Square root oft]
To the 3 Th and 8 th, or [[LAMBDA]. sup. *]= [X. sup. *]/[Square root oft]
5 and 8, eliminating X and [X. sup. *]
T in these equations becomes :(9)d/d[LAMBDA]([D. sub. T]([THETA])d[THETA]/d[LAMBDA])+ [LAMBDA]/2d[THETA]/[LAMBDA]= 0 (10)d/d[[LAMBDA]. sup. *]([D. sub. 293]([THETA])d[THETA]/d[[LAMBDA]. sup. *])+ [[LAMBDA]. sup. *]/2 d[THETA]/d[[LAMBDA]. sup. *]= 0 (11)[THETA]= [[THETA]. sub. i]; [LAMBDA]or [[LAMBDA]. sup. *][rightarrow][infinity][THETA]= [[THETA]. sub. 0]; [LAMBDA]ro[[LAMBDA]. sup. *]
= 0 equations 9 and 11 mean that if the flow is described with equations 3 and ifEqns 8 then [THETA]([LAMBDA])
Unique for each temperature T.
On the other hand, equations 10 and 11 mean that if equations 5 and 8 are valid then [THETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. *]
This will be unique for all temperatures, and within the temperature range where the flow of viscous liquids occurs, data on the flow conditions of 293 K have been standardized.
The materials and methods were subjected to experiments consistent with equations 3, 5 and 8 at a constant temperature of 277. 5 [+ or -]0. 5 K, 293 [+ or -]0. 5 K, and303-306 [+ or -]0.
5 K, at each temperature, the experiment is complex and terminated at different times to test the use of [related]LAMBDA]and [[LAMBDA]. sup. *].
Three different porous materials were used.
Through non-absorbing water
These experiments are similar to those of Bruce and clutt (1956)
Performed by Smiles and others. (1978).
Uniform horizontal column of relatively dry soil absorbing saturated CaS [O. sub. 4]
Solution from a small constant negative potential source.
Table 2 shows the properties of this soil.
Gypsum is used to prevent dispersion of clay and subsequent structural changes.
Cut the columns into small sections to terminate the experiment and dry each part by oven to determine the distribution of water content.
Pay attention to keep all the soil for each part.
The experiment was performed at 3 different temperatures and at different termination times in each temperature range.
In these experiments,THETA]
Expressed as a water quality score (kg/kg)
A is the cumulative quality of soil cross per unit
Measurement from the inflow end)
Square root per unit of time (kg/[m. sup. 2]. [s. sup. 1/2])(Smiles 2001).
The distribution of water content is drawn ([THETA])([LAMBDA])and [THETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. *]).
Chemical engineers use chromatography paper to absorb water and simply measure the filtration of mud and mud.
These experiments are the same as the smile describes (1998).
A horizontal dry goods 17 chromatography paper that absorbs distilled water from the reservoir under zero suction at one end.
The paper, about 1mm thick, is cut into small pieces with scissors and an oven --
Dry after different running times to test [THETA]([LAMBDA])
Zoom at each temperature. [THETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. *])
Personal data was also drawn.
The chromatography paper increases with the increase of thickness (Smiles 1998)
So the water content ,[THETA]
, In this case, the amount of water per area expressed as a horizontal cross-section of the paper (kg/[m. sup. 2])
, A is the cumulative paper area of square root per unit width per unit time (m/[s. sup. 1/2])
, Measured from the end of the water.
In these experiments, the adsorption of water by saturated clay paste, bentonite mud with an initial water content of 12.
2 kg water/kg clay minerals are filtered through a0. 45-[micro]
M film at constant pressure of 48 cmHg.
The filter film can make it easy for water to escape, but it can prevent the leakage of clay.
Water content profiles obtain continuous slicing and blast drying boxes that atappropriate takes time (
Smilesand Sentai 1968).
In these experiments,THETA]
Water expressed as Clay and [per unit of mass]LAMBDA]
Is the cumulative clay mass per unit area, measured from the filter film according to the square change of time.
The properties of clay are shown in Table 3.
Experimental results of non-water absorption
Figure 2 of expansive soil shows 【THETA]([LAMBDA])
The expansive soil is at 278 K, 293 K and 304 K, while the figure
3 showing that the data is normal at 293 K and plotted [THETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. *]).
Figure 2 shows that within the acceptable experimental error range (
Smile and Smith 2004), that the[THETA]([LAMBDA])
Although the time of cutting the column is different, the profile of each temperature is unique.
That is, for each temperature, they maintain A similarity in terms of.
The results show that the basic flow equation is effective and the initial and boundary conditions are realized.
These profiles show that the penetration rate of water increases as the temperature increases from 278 K to 304 K.
They don't seem to reveal the effect of temperature on [[THETA]. sub. 0]. [FIGURES 2-3 OMITTED]
Figure 3 shows the normalization of Figure 3.
2 according to the temperature dependence of the moving viscosity and the data of the surface tension of pure water at 293 K, [THETA]([LAMBDA])
The profile of a curve corresponding to the experimental results is 293 K.
Within the acceptable experimental error range, there is no reason to process temperature dependence in these data sets, except for the surface tension and viscosity of purified water.
In these experiments, saturated gypsum was used to minimize structural changes during absorption, and this invasive solution replaced soil water from field components in the saturated extraction data shown in Table 2.
Smile and Smith (2004)
Explain the magnitude of chemical changes associated with the dispersion and chemical reaction of this soil and indicate that this is chemical, a relatively "dirty" system in which the soil is close to flowing into the surface, dominated by saturated gypsum solution, approaching and exceeding the front of the piston, in balance [K. sup. +]and[Ca. sup. 2+]with [Cl. sup. -]and N[O. sub. 3. sup. -]
The main anion.
The authors provide details of the analysis of the system in which gypsum replaces the ions that were originally present.
Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the [absorption of water by chromatography]THETA]([LAMBDA])and[THETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. *])
Outline of chromatography paper of 278 K and 304 K
These figures also show that water absorption is easier at higher than lower temperatures.
Similar to being retained in [THETA]([LAMBDA])
For each temperature (Fig. 4)and in[THETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. *])(Fig. 5)
When the flow is normalized according to the temperature of 293 K.
This standardized profile corresponds to 293 K (See a smile 1998).
293 of the data is not included here to avoid confusing the numbers.
Therefore, the flow equation seems to be appropriate to achieve the initial and boundary conditions, and the surface tension and viscosity of pure water are sufficient to describe the temperature dependence of absorbing dissolved water through chemical "clean" color paper.
Like these oils, there seems to be no evidence that the temperature has an effect on [[THETA]. sub. 0]. [FIGURES 4-5 OMITTED]
Figure 6 showing the understanding of adsorption of water by saturated clay paste [THETA]([LAMBDA])
Profile of saturated bentonite under constant filtration pressure at 277 K and 306 K
Similarly, similarity is maintained, so we assume that the flow equation is valid and the initial and boundary conditions are implemented.
The cooler material loses water more slowly than the warmer material.
However, in the case of de-adsorption of clay, the system still maintains water-
The volume change is equal to the volume of the water flowing out)
We do not expect surface tension effects associated with air
The water interface to be observed.
Therefore, Figure 7 shows the data of Figure 7.
6 simple viscosity ratio (Terzaghi 1923)andgraphed as [THETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. **])where: [FIGURES 6-7 OMITTED](12)[[LAMBDA]. sup. **]/[LAMBDA]= [square root of([[mu]. sub. T]/[[mu]. sub. 293 K)]
Figure 7 also includes data obtained from experiments conducted at 293 k, which are not in the figure in order to reduce "confusion"6.
Obviously, the simple scaling, based on the temperature dependence of the moving viscosity of pure water, again effectively eliminates the difference between the data sets produced at different temperatures in these clay systems.
Discussion of the effect of temperature on the soil moisture relationship is usually measured under conditions of static equilibrium or stable flow.
Effect of temperature change on [THETA], [psi]
It is then measured or v, and is related to the effect of temperature on viscosity, surface tension, volume change of closed air or other effects (e. g. , Surface Active Agents.
However, it is difficult to add and maintain a stable, non-saturated vertical flow in the soil, so experiments tend to become complex and their interpretation is often ambiguous (e. g. Constantz1982;
Stoffregen and others. 1997).
Here, we explore the case of unstable flow during adsorption to sources or from source at constant potential, which are well understood in the analysis and are relatively easy
The advantages of these experiments are (i)
It is possible to avoid the use of suction plates to achieve the application of water in non-saturated conditions, and (ii)
Scaling at any temperature by the square root of the distance divided by time encourages us to believe that the flow equation is valid and that the boundary conditions have been implemented.
Compared with the stable flow experiment, a disadvantage of the adsorption experiment is the space-
Like coordinating the proportions based on the square root of the viscosity and surface tension ratio, these experiments are less sensitive to the change in this ratio than the experiments that directly measure the hydraulic conduction rate.
Nevertheless, if viscosity and surface tension are important, the relatively large effects caused by viscosity and surface tension described in some other papers should be obvious.
At a constant temperature of about 277 K, 293 K and 304 K, absorption and absorption experiments were carried out on three kinds of alienated materials.
For each material and temperature, the water content distribution is measured at different elapsed time and space
Variable A = [Xt. sup. -1/2]
The validity of the basic flow law used to "test" lead to Equation 3 and the initial and boundary conditions (Eqns 8).
This note does not review all possible impacts in this complex investigation and cites other extensive investigations.
However, it is useful to summarize the key points related to these three materials.
They are examined by the experimental errors revealed in the data dissemination as well as the scale, duration and temperature range of the experiment.
For each material, however :(1)
Overview of water contentTHETA]([LAMBDA])
Each temperature represents a similar but different temperature for different temperatures.
This implies that equation 3 is valid and that conditions for Equation 8 are implemented in all temperatures and materials. (2)These [THETA]([LAMBDA])
When the graph is [, the outline of the soiland used for the chromatography paper is mergedTHETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. *]), where [[LAMBDA]. sup. *]
Zoom A according [[LAMBDA]. sup. *]= A x[([([mu]/[sigma]). sub. T]/[([mu]/[sigma]). sub. 293]). sup. 1/2].
They correspond within the experimental range to the profile measured at 293 K, if the method is effective.
Merge using [[LAMBDA]. sup. *]
This means that the temperature dependence of the transient flow in these experiments is simply related to the temperature dependence! a and [sigma]of pure water.
The adsorption behavior of clay is similar (Figs 6 and 7).
However, the water interface in the clay and the flow there seem to be affected only by the temperature dependence of the moving viscosity of pure water.
However, this conclusion is weak due to the relatively insignificant contribution [sigma](see Fig. 1). (3)
There is no evidence that the structural water (if present) of the water/Clay interface affects the temperature dependence of the flow because of the analytical data of the bentonite (
Have a large specific surface)
No abnormal effect is displayed (Smiles et al. 1985).
These experiments did not address the effect of the solution and its concentration on [temperature dependence]mu]or [sigma],however.
This is because in these experiments, the theory and observation of dispersion and chemical reactions lead us to the expected concentration distribution of the solution itselfsimilar in[LAMBDA]and [[LAMBDA]. sup. *]. Semi-
In terms of quantity, this means an oil solution between the front of the piston (
The apparent interface between the absorbing solution and the original solution)
The saturation extraction data in table 2 describes the moist front well.
The soil solution between the front of the piston and X = 0 is close to the composition of the absorbed solution (
Smile and Smith 2004).
Will itself is scale.
In addition, within the concentration range of the solution observed here ,[differential][([mu]/[sigma]). sub. T]/[differential]
The T curve of the Mostaqueous solution actually looks the same (cf.
Data on pure water and seawater from Sverdrup et al. 1942)
As a result, the water content distribution will continue to maintain similarity and la and cyeffects will be buried in [D. sub. 293]([THETA])
Calculate from [THETA]([[LAMBDA]. sup. *])
By Bruce and Klute (1956).
They will find that only [mu]and [sigma]
It is measured independently on the water.
Similarly, the solution may affect the water contact points of the soil, but it does not seem to affect their temperature dependence.
We did not measure [THETA]([psi])
Used for saturated soil and chromatography paper.
Data from Smiles and others. (1985)
However, there is no significant effect for bentes.
This is consistent with the observed results, there can be very few fish in this system, but for this system it also eliminates the effect on [psi]
This may occur due to the special effects of the clay/water interface.
These data are based on experiments. THETA]([psi])
Measured at constant temperature, similar to the experiments described by Nimmo and Miller (1986)
We can't comment on the "gain factor" of Nimmo and miller as large as 8 (
The gain factor measures the degree to which the suction force exceeds the temperature dependence of the surface tension). Gardner(1955)
Taylor and Stewart (1960)held [THETA]
Constant and measurement]psi]
As the temperature changes.
Their experiments also reveal that the effect is far greater than expected from considering the effect of temperature on [sigma]alone.
It is worth noting that the values [[THETA]. sub. i]
Temperature is dependent in these experiments.
However, from the observations of Nimmo and Miller, this is also a weak evidence (1986)
In conclusion, the effect of temperature on transient flow in each material seems to be well described by the temperature dependence of the moving viscosity and the surface tension of pure water.
In any experiment, there is no temperature change during the flow, however, when the temperature changes during the flow, the most likely source of the enhancement effect must be located (transient? )
Effect of temperature on the volume of air trapped in saturated soil (
But please see Hopmans and Dane 1986a).
Only the lag of soil moisture properties may lead to relatively large changes in the capillary potential associated with relatively small water content changes and change directions.
These effects will be material properties that can only be defined by measurement.
Then, since K ([THETA])
Proportion of the effective radius of the water conduction element (
Miller and Miller 1956)
But water as a way to redistribute isolated air --
The pore shrinkage and expansion of the filling will be a material property that is not allowed to be summarized in terms of surface tension at the fair/water interface.
It is necessary to confirm some of these experiments to determine the flow properties in the soil that is heavily watered with pig farm wastewater.
The Australian Pork Association supports this work.
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Received the manuscript on August 13, 2004 and accepted D on January 27, 2005. E.
Australia Act 1666 Canberra PO Box 2601 CSIRO Land and water. Email: david. smiles@csiro.