science quickens its steps - absorbent polymer beads
In the history of the war, the higher the proficiency of the battle, the better the medicine for treatment.
During World War II, battlefield doctors designed better techniques to repair vulnerable blood vessels, essentially rewriting the vascular surgery textbook.
The Vietnam War triggered the rapid evacuation of the wounded by helicopters and was soon followed by urban medical centers across the United States.
For the war in Iraq and Afghanistan, medical heritage may belong to amputees.
The rate of amputations in the United States. S.
As insurgents mainly use explosives, the forces in these conflicts are almost double the number of previous US military conflicts.
In the past war, some soldiers who would have died were rescued by body armor that did not protect their arms and legs.
Government agencies, private companies and independent researchers are creating more
Technical prosthetic limbs in response.
In doing so, they are breaking the boundaries that researchers and doctors once thought were possible.
"In my experience, there has never been a time when amputees have received so much help to overcome obstacles that have to adapt to the new body," said Robert S . "Gailey Jr.
Assistant professor of physical therapy at the University of Miami, who has been working on artificial limbs for a long time.
"These young men and women will never understand what people who lost their limbs 25 years ago have to go through.
Different from the dead.
Weighted and immutable arms, feet, and knees provided for Vietnam veterans, the best artificial limbs currently available rely on artificial intelligence to predict users' movements.
A knee is expected to show up in a few months, and it will even mimic lost muscle activity, powering ankle and leg amputees, getting them up the stairs, or standing up from a sitting position.
But this is just the beginning.
Advances in robotics, electronics, and tissue engineering may ultimately create ways to extend damaged limbs, grow new cartilage, skin and bones, and permanently fix the prosthesis on the body.
Some researchers are even designing
Called biological hybrid limb-
Artificial limbs that can be controlled by the user's idea.
Biological hybrid limbs are designed to reduce the amount of work required to move the limbs, thereby limiting falls, increasing security and improving selfimage.
Users of such a leg can jump out of the sofa and catch a baby who is about to fall from the high chair.
In short, the researchers predicted that it would be as good as the natural body limb, Hugh Hull said: "Ten years ago, we imagined a neural interface, but this is science fiction, "a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology lost his feet when he was 17 years old due to freezing injuries while climbing the mountain.
"But now these things are nearing implementation in the lab.
"The progress brought about by the recent American war is mainly determined by the fact that combat injuries have changed ---
The same is true of soldiers.
Only 10% of the population in the United StatesS.
According to 30% study by the New England Journal of Medicine, the number of casualties in Iraq has died, compared with 24% in World War II and 2004 in Vietnam.
But according to a report from the United States, 6% of the wounded need to be amputated, compared to only 3% in past wars. S. Senate report.
As of last March, the latest data showed that 428 amputations were reported in the United States. S. troops in Iraq.
At the same time, doctors say that the current generation of GI amputees are the most athletic in the American War, and they have high expectations for their recovery.
Some are still active.
At least 1 feet amputees have returned to Iraq for their mission.
"They hope that the prosthesis will restore them to a high level of functioning," said Robert Ralph, neurologist and acting director of rehabilitation research at the Department of Veterans Affairs.
"The soldiers have a very good cardiovascular condition, so they have more demand for artificial limbs.
"In order for the military to recover physically and mentally from the amputations, they need the hope and the best things that technology offers.
Chang, 23, a high school wrestler wrest, is proud of his health and lost his legs below his knee while serving in Iraq.
Now, he is using his previous image to promote his recovery, and recently he has learned to run on the prosthetic limb.
One day at the end of December, he sat on the runway in a fitness club in Rosemead, running his feet: high-
Tech titanium and carbon fiber accessories that look a bit like a curved snowboard with thick rubber soles of running shoes glued to the bottom.
He jumped up. -
The prosthetic running foot provides such flexibility that when Wang Jianlin walks, he will have a slight ground Spring.
He walked along the track, invisible, as steady as the next guy.
He walked a long way.
On last May, Huang Guangyu's tank hit an improvised explosive device on a dirt road outside Baghdad.
In the seat of the ground gunner, the explosion was mainly the King.
"I know I have to get out of the tank," said Huang.
On 2001, a group of colloquial people joined the Army with friends.
"But I can't do it when I try to stand up.
I looked down and my leg was broken.
"About a month later, when he was finally fully awake, he was lying at the Brook Army Medical Center in San Antonio, imagining a life dependent on a wheelchair.
Brooke's caregiver coaxed him to the prosthetic limb while he wasn't sure if he wanted to live.
After taking the first step, he decided "it doesn't make sense to look back.
Now I hold my head high and encourage others. "His short-
The goal of the semester is to increase his lung capacity so that he can run further.
In the long run, he wants to go back to school and get a degree in physiotherapy so he can help other amputees.
Although there are several high yellow
The tech prosthesis that allows him to walk, run and swim, he is paying close attention to improvements.
The next big thing about artificial limbs will be electric equipment, which is expected to enter the market soon. The Rheo knee --
It uses artificial intelligence, which actually imitates the ability to think. -
It is considered the most complex prosthesis.
It's almost not like a real limb, mainly made up of a thick titanium stick and a brick
Blue box covering the microprocessor.
It has no motor, but it's a gait-
Adaptive, automatically adjusted to what the user wants at any given moment.
The electronic sensor monitors the angle and load of the knee joint at 1,000 times per second, while the special fluid passing through the magnetic field changes viscosity or friction, enabling the user to move or brake effectively.
The computer chip generates and regulates the strength of the magnetic field to facilitate movement.
Hilmar Janusson, vice president of research and development in Iceland, said: "It appreciates what you are trying to do and makes adjustments to this --"
Ossur, a prosthetic company that invented the Rhine knee.
"Like if you have a gear in the car, you have to stick to it whether you're uphill, downhill or on the highway.
Now you have a gearbox and a control mechanism to select the gear for you.
"Like many amputees looking for the latest, best equipment, Mike McNorton recently requested ---and received --
Rhine knee from the VA. The 34-year-
In 2002, the old man was clearing mines when he was a National Guard sergeant in Afghanistan, when he stepped on a mine and lost his right leg.
At that time, he hoped to get a limb made of wood.
"I don't know anything about artificial limbs," he said . "
McNorton quickly adapted to C-
Leg with the first microprocessor launched in 1999-
Controlled knees that can be programmed according to the user's actions.
He then looked for a Rhine knee.
"It's keeping pace with you," said McNorton, who is now employed by the Department of Homeland Security in Luiz Anna to help with the recovery of Hurricane Katrina.
As resource manager for the department, McNorton ordered baby cots, food, generators and other supplies to support the rebuilding of the storm area.
"If you go fast, it goes fast.
The other day, my son and I played together while playing football practice.
"I spent some time there with the children," he said . ".
However, the most anticipated progress of the new generation of artificial limbs may be Power Knee of osssur, which is expected to be available in a few months.
This knee uses AI, but it also has a motor to provide the missing muscle strength.
It may be best suited for amputees who have difficulty navigating walking distance or stairs or slopes.
Power Knee collects information one step ahead of the prosthesis.
The sensor device located on the Sound Foot measures the position of motion, load and natural limb at a rate of about 1,350 times per second.
The information is then transmitted to the artificial knee, which calculates the exact power required.
Experts say troops returning from the war are ideal for receiving the latest technologies for artificial limbs.
They made these incredible sacrifices.
I think it's appropriate to say that society thinks we should give them back as much as we can . "
Roy Allen, the head of the Veterans Administration.
Brown University-funded biological hybrid limb research team in ProvidenceI.
The next major leap in prosthesis technology may require researchers to make better use of any remaining tissue in the human body and to acquire the brain, the most powerful tool in the body.
Aaron is looking into whether it is possible to grow cells for bones, skin, muscles and cartilage, and then inject the results into the damaged joints to increase function.
It turns out that growing cartilage and muscles are more difficult than regenerative bones and skin.
But researchers have made progress in packaging key cartilage growth factors in tiny particles called biodegradable polymer beads.
Then the particles are injected to stimulate the formation of new tissues.
Other researchers hope to make better use of damaged or amputated limbs through a process called limb extension.
For decades, doctors have increased the height of dwar Confucianism or other physically deformed children by passing the wires through the skin and bones of the legs and connecting the wires to the frame outside the limbs.
In a few months, the slight adjustments to the wires stretch the bones, and the new bones grow to fill the gaps.
Same treatment. -
If it can work in adults-
Can help solve a major problem with today's artificial limbs.
When a limb is removed directly below the joint, there is not enough limb to safely connect the prosthesis.
Extending the remaining bones by a few inches will provide a stronger connection to the artificial knee, ankle or arm, Aaron said.
Most of the prosthesis is attached to the joints with cuffs, which are attached by suction, allowing the skin to absorb most of the movement stress and strain.
Brown and other ongoing studies are intended to use titanium implants to permanently attach the prosthesis to the bone.
This process is called osseo-
However, for successful integration, scientists must find a way to prevent bacteria from entering the body because the bolts of the prosthesis highlight the skin.
The goal is to find a titanium alloy that is strong enough but porous enough to allow the cells to attach to it to form a tight seal.
"It would be great if they could make the prosthesis part of the bone and make sure it wasn't infected because it would weigh --
"Bearing," said Paddy rusbach, president of the American Alliance of amputees, a non-profit education organization based in Knoxville, Tennessee.
"It's like dental implants.
You put a needle in the bone.
But for the limb prosthesis, the pin must come out through the skin.
"However, the ultimate goal of biological hybrid limbs is to repair nerves ---
The ability to control artificial limbs with ideas.
The principle of this technique is to capture brain signals or nerve pulses from the residual limb and convert these signals into computer commands to tell the prosthesis what to do: lift, move to the left or right, speed up the stop.
In his MIT lab, he's inserting a Bion, a microchip about a metre-sized chip that can receive signals from nerves in existing leg muscles, and send motion instructions to the prosthesis.
Sensors on the heel and foot of the prosthesis pass the information back to the microprocessor to guide the movement.
The first study on prototype equipment is in progress.
"The goal of these systems is to be completely natural and natural, just like your own body," Haier said . ".
"If the amputee has to think about and struggle, it's useless.
They will throw it away.
In Foxborough, Mass.
A company called network dynamics neural technology systems.
One day, a system called BrainGate may be used to help amputees operate intelligent artificial limbs.
System decoding brain waves--thoughts --
Translate to computer command.
Preliminary studies have shown that people with limbs can turn on the lights alone and move the computer cursor with their thinking.
A small chip is implanted in the primary motor cortex of the brain.
The signal collected by the sensor is transmitted through the wire through the cable to the metal base implanted in the skull and body.
The processor digitizes the data and decodes it into a mobile command.
John Donaghue, who leads the scientific development team, said the goal is to design a wireless implant system.
Donaghue, head of Brown's Department of Neuroscience, said: "The challenge to build a good interface with biological tissue is to make it a micro-organization . ".
"I am fully confident that there will be such a technology.
"People who lose their arms benefit the most from nerve repair.
The progress of the prosthesis lags behind the knees and ankles, as it takes complexity to move the elbows, wrists and multiple finger joints.
Best artificial feet
Today's ankle system provides users with normal functions of about 50% to 60%;
About 30% Knee; and arm-
Only about 5% hand systems, says Janusson of osssur.
In a study by the Chicago Institute of Rehabilitation,
Todd queken transferred four nerves on the shoulder of a man who lost his arms in an electrical accident to the chest muscles of his chest.
The nerves that used to control the human arm were able to detect signals from the brain from the electrodes placed in the chest.
After the prosthesis is installed, the person can simply open the hand by thinking.
"Nerve repair surgery is like what you see in Star Wars," said Gary of the University of Miami . ".
"If you think about it, the mechanical equipment will react.
This is the ultimate goal.
"All the designs are for the future high
Artificial limbs facing challenges.
The drive needs to be smaller, quieter and only need to be charged once a day, he said.
They need to better mimic the natural speed and energy output, which Haier believes can be corrected within ten years.
It will be more difficult to help amputees achieve a natural balance.
The ability to feel the surrounding environment with a prosthetic limb is a huge obstacle.
"It's a little easier to move.
"It's hard to make a splash," said Aaron of Brown University . ".
But even today, advanced prosthetic limbs, combined with strict rehabilitation programs, have brought faster and more satisfactory rehabilitation to amputees, experts say.
The rehabilitation of amputees at the Brook Army Medical Center includes going out to play bowls or playing laser tags or paintballs on Friday night.
"It makes you get used to the fact that people are staring at you," said Wang.
Amputees don't seem to care that the latest prosthesis doesn't look like a limb.
"When the prosthesis does not work well, the psychological response of the amputee is usually to do everything possible to make the prosthesis look like a human being.
They are ashamed of it . "
"But when this device works, it's common for amputees to do the opposite.
They revealed the fact that it does not look like a human body.
They think it's cool.
"At osssur, Eythor Bender, president of the North American division, envisioned such a high artificial limb --
Technology and reality
It looks like users can swing their artificial toes.
"This is something we take for granted, but there is still this device on the leg of the amputee," said Bender . ".
"God did a very good job.
It's hard to imitate it.