oil spill! a marine calamity raises the burning question: how to prevent a repeat disaster? (oil/oceans). - oil spill pads
For the last November oil tanker preshige, it was a routine voyage-
Until it slides into a violent storm. The 26-year-
An old ship from Latvia to Gibraltar loaded about 77,000 tons of tower-like fuel oil.
Oil or crude oil is a viscous mixture of compounds consisting of liquid hydrocarbons, hydrogen and carbon elements.
Over time, crude oil will form underground and plants and animals will rot.
The refinery divides crude oil into products such as fuel oil, asphalt and gasoline.
45 kilometres on November 13 (28 miles)
Off the coast of Galicia in northwest Spain, the hull of an oil tanker was suddenly torn by a mysterious crack.
When the water flooded the ship and the oil began to bleed out, the crew sent a crazy distress signal (see diagram, p. 8).
Shocked by the upcoming environmental disaster-
The coastal waters are the mother rivers of local fishermen, and the rugged coast is a paradise for wildlife ---
The Spanish government ordered a halt to prestige.
The rescue tugboat sailed to the leaking vessel and dragged it 322 km kilometers (200 mi)
On the open sea.
The helicopter airlifted all 27 crew members to safety, but the disaster is far from over.
Six days later, prestige fell 3,500 in two (1. 5 mi)
Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.
Environmental scientists say the tanker carried more than half its load before it fell. The rest--
About 37,500 tons-
Sink into the sea with prestige.
"This is one of the worst oil spills ever," said Simon Kripps of the WWF . ".
Although its tools are not enough.
The largest oil tanker spill on record has been stripped off: On 1979, 279,000 tons of oil were dumped in western Indian waters.
Immediately began the prestige cleaning work.
Rescue of oil by vets and volunteers
Thousands of soldiers and fishermen shovel chewing gum on thousands of kilometers of coastline. As the big mop-
The question continues: will the Galicia Coast ecosystem be restored?
What about the oil trapped in the wreck?
How can scientists and governments prevent future disasters? Read on.
Q: What oil did Prestige leak?
A: The tanker is loaded with dense sticky oil used to fuel large ships.
David Kennedy, director of the National Bureau of Oceans and Atmosphere, said: "This is something that floats very low in the water, like spots on lava lamps . " (NOAA)
Office of Response and Recovery.
This heavy oil is not easy to evaporate or break down into water droplets. -
Prepare for killer cleanup
Q: What happens when oil flows into the sea?
A: In fact, natural oil from the bottom of the sea will constantly soak it out.
"Oil is a natural product," said Gary Shigenaka, a marine biologist at NOAA . ".
"You can have a diverse, healthy ecosystem around it.
"But the huge oil spill will crash the ecosystem.
Over time, all oil spills will eventually be cleared.
"The name of the process is weathering," explains Rebecca Hoff, a marine biologist at NOAA . ". Wind.
Waves and sunlight break down oil into water droplets;
The microbes in the ocean then feed on water droplets.
Light oil products like kerosene or gasoline quickly evaporate and disappear in a few days.
But unless experts remove the tart fuel oil from the water.
It will be washed ashore and may destroy the coastline.
Q: Is there any quick solution to remove oil from sea water?
A: One strategy is to spray the fritters with A chemical dispersing agent and divide the oil into tiny particles so that it can start natural weathering.
But this method does not work in this case.
"Very heavy oil is hard to disperse," said Hove.
"Other strategies: Sometimes experts use fishing nets called prosperity to trap spills.
Oil tanker oil absorption.
Or they can light the oil.
"Burning oil will remove a lot of oil from the surface," Hoff said . ".
The resulting smoke is similar to a forest fire.
But prestige crude sank 10 to 15 feet below the water. -
The boom, the corner reader, or the fire are out of reach.
Q: What will happen to oil reaching the coast?
"When the oil is washing on the beach, people just shovel it up," Hoff explained . ".
"This is not a hightech thing.
"In this case, the affected coast is a mix of rocky coastlines and nearly 600 sandy beaches.
"We went to a place 1 m thick," said Shigenaka . ".
After people drag the "Black Tide" away, nature will stand the test of the remaining oil on the surface.
Q: What is the impact of the oil spill on the region?
A: It is difficult for scientists to predict the extent of ecological destruction.
But they are looking at the consequences of America's worst oil spill. S.
Waters looking for clues: the oil patch left by the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster still releases toxins that hurt Alaska's marine life-
From fish and birds to terrestrial mammals.
"It will take a long time for oil to disappear and the impact to disappear," said Brenda Barach of the United States. S.
Geological Survey of Alaska Science Center
The British bird Research Trust says oil from Prestige has killed 200,000 of 71 seabirds. As for fishing--
Economic pillar of Galicia-
"A lot of fisheries have been shut down," said Shigenaka . ".
The wrecked tanker seeps oil from the bottom of the sea, threatening the entire marine food chain, as oil particles move from tiny microorganisms known as plankton to small fish that eat them, and so on;
Even a small amount of crude oil can damage fish eggs and embryos, according to a National Marine Fisheries Service study.
Q: Will oil always maintain its prestige?
This is the idea at first.
"The cold temperatures deep in the ocean are promising to solidify oil," said Shigenaka . ".
On the contrary, the oil has been condensed into a gel and penetrated into the water stably.
As a temporary solution, a French Mini
The submarine patched 17 of the 20 holes on the tanker.
"But in the end the ship experienced rust," said Shigenaka . ".
That's why scientists are urging the Spanish government to use an underwater robot to extract the remaining oil from the tank on board.
Although the remedy could be daunting in three years. 5-km-
The research team is exploring the deep water strategy.
Q: How do we prevent future leaks?
A: First of all, the tanker needs to be upgraded.
An old tanker like preshige contains a layer of metal that separates the cargo from the ocean.
The new "Millennium" tanker uses a double-shell structure to provide greater leak protection (see diagram, p. 8). U. S.
EU law now requires double-shell structures for all new tankers.
But experts point out that even the best crew on the safest ship will be in trouble.
"This is not the first tanker disaster, nor will it be the last one," said Klaus topfair, executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme . ".
Meet the Earth 3-billion-gallon-per-
The oil habit of the day, the global transportation of fuel, pipeline transportation and truck transportation.
Is there any alternative energy?
I will know by turning one page.
Prestige tanker disaster 26-year-
In last November, an old tanker split and sank off northwest Spain, triggering the biggest ecological disaster in Europe's history.
Here, take a closer look at the oil spill: Prestige sheet-
Giant oil tankers like Prestige are being phased out.
To 2010, all oil tankers in the United StatesS.
The waters must have double shells.
A single shell of steel separates the oil tank from the ocean.
Oil spills if the hull breaks.
The new "Millennium grade" tanker with double shells has two layers of steel 10 feet apart.
How did the tanker sink? A strong storm ripped a hole in the hull.
The violent waves soon flooded some empty tanks.
3 The weight difference between the center and the end of the Hull eventually split the prestige in two. [
As oil spreads on the surface of the sea, the fate of spilled oil begins to disintegrate.
Here are eight physical and chemical changes that help the ocean clean the oil itself: the evaporation of light substances in oil evaporates from the surface.
Mix oil and water into mousse-
Just like the material that people can collect.
A small portion of the oil compound is dissolved in seawater.
The sinking gravity pulls heavy oil to the bottom of the sea.
The oxidized oxygen molecules combine with oil to dissolve slowly in water.
Biodegradable microorganisms in water use compounds in oil as raw materials to decompose them into water
The dispersed wave breaks down and spreads the oil into water, encouraging biodegradation and dissolution.
After the microorganisms began to degrade oil, the small worms were added.
When fish eat worms, oil enters the ocean food chain. [
Slightly] IllustrationsDid You Know?
* Due to its color and texture, scientists call the emulsion formed by oil and water "chocolate mousse ".
There are more than 86 fish on the banks of Galicia-
Including anchovies, sardines and mon fish. -
Threatened by a leak of prestige tankers.
The mussels and clams bed in Galicia is the largest in Spain.
* The Spanish government estimates that the "prestige" disaster cleanup will cost $1 billion over the next year. Cross-
Course contact math: Prestige brought 77,000 tons of oil at the time.
How many barrels is it?
How many liters?
Help you with these numbers: 1 barrel = 160 liters 1 ton = 7 to 9 barrels (
Depending on the weight of the oil)
Critical thinking: in response to the Prestige disaster, the EU plans to impose tougher penalties on marine polluters ---
There has been an increase in severity from fines to criminal sanctions.
When the tanker leaks oil, who should be responsible for it and how should it be punished?
Emma Daley and Andrew C. resource "The tanker split near Spain and threatened the Coast"
Revkin, New York Times, on November 20, 2002, the Office for response and recovery of NOAA provided a comprehensive website for children: www. response. restoration. noaa. gov/kids/kids.
Html for a wide range of activities and policies, please check the video tape and workbook module called Russell G. Spill
1995, Dell Seymour Press.
Order phone 1-800-872-1100.