"la bebida nacional": pulque and mexicanidad, 1920-46. - nopal cactus juice

by:Demi     2019-10-14
It is said that all real Mexicans like Pok. " --Larry Barretta (1)
"El Ha insider trading uno de los components bdsicos de lacultura agave in Mexico, desde de Bende nuestros hasta la konkistadias [1 [
Pulque has been a fundamental part of Mexican culture from the beginning to Today]. " --Raul Guerrero (2)
Mexico, 1930 s: under the guidance of travel books, inspired by muralpainters in Mexico and interested in the history of Aztec and Maya in Mexico, foreign tourists arrive by train and car every day by boat to discover this exciting land, "as with anything you go to Europe to see, it is beautiful in its own unique way. " (3)
The Mexican market exudes a fresh taste of frijoles and tortillas Cooking, and sees colored masks and finely decorated skeletons, providing these visitors with an unprecedented experience. (4)
In the countryside, travelers see more than 6 feet of heaven and earth plants growing in the wide fields, and in the sand City of the town, they taste the nectar of heaven and earth plants. -pulque. (5)
The desire of these travelers is to experience a typical "Mexican" adventure, 1920-
One of the most important countries in Mexico
During the period of construction, pulque, as an important national symbol, enjoys a high reputation both at home and abroad. (6)
According to Hayden Herrera, the biographer of Frida Caro, pulquilla is Caro's favorite drink, because for her it is the epitome of Mexico: Post-Mexican cultivated
A revolutionary period that makes Mexico's native origin and everyday culture valuable. (7)
Kalou's husband, Mexican Diego Rivera, noted that among his works of art, the famous include pulque and pulquerias, a symbolic way of bringing workers and indigenous communities-
Two groups related to pulp production and consumption--
In the discussion in Mexico(8)
International, thousands of American tourists like Larry Barreto travel in post-Mexico
The revolutionary period is eager to taste the typical "Mexico" experience, including tasting "national drinks ". (9)
Pulque, traditionally an Aztec drink, is restricted for elite, medical and holiday purposes;
By 1920, however, Pok was the most popular drink in Mexico, especially among workers and daily Mexicans. (10)
Today, tequila is known as Mexico's "national drink", but at a critical time in Mexico --building, 1920-
46, pulque is "la bebidanacional" in Mexico because of its independent roots and ability to connect Mexico. (11)
At home, the Mexican government, together with well-known Mexican intellectuals such as Rivera and kalo, is actively working to promote the widely involved Mexican identity, including national symbols such as pulque, it combines everyday Mexican and Aboriginal elements, Spanish and elite elements. (12)
Pulque embodies the concept of native Mexican and modern everyday elements reflected on the cover of Josd paz'sen Defensa de Pulque (1935). (13)
As shown in Figure 1, Aztec glyphsrim covers the top and bottom of the cover, but the font style is ArtNouveau.
This depiction emphasizes two elements of Pok's history, the history of the past and the history of the present.
There is no place on the cover of Paz, only in his text, he mentioned the three pulque-hundred-
A year of history as a tax and merger of colonial products.
With a few exceptions, this period in the Mexican state
The origins of architecture, pulque are almost entirely related to its "authentic" Aztec tradition. (14)
Description like inPaz's brochure, even the use of pulque in the 19 th century continues --
Persons in their 40 s were reviewed for their negative impact on indigenous and civilian communities.
As described by the New York Times in 1930, authorities are concerned about the "drink curse in Mexico ". " (15)
Paz wrote his book "defending pulque", which is opposed at home to the view that pulque provides important economic income. (16)
Interestingly, instead of using extensive colonial tax records to support his argument, he relied on his findings
Columbia and modern information. [
Figure 1 slightly]
Historian Eric Hobbs Baum called this disconnect between the presentation of symbols and the actual historical evidence of their "traditional inventions. " (17)
Hobbs Baum believes that understanding the symbols and customs that are natural through invention is necessary for a subtle understanding of nationalism. (18)
During the 46 th period, the basic description of pulque represented a concert that made the country natural --
Architectural value of the latter
During the Revolution--
Including the value assessment of civilians and indigenous populations-
It also damaged Mexico's long heritage as a former Spanish colony. In 1920-
46. Mexico not only faces a period of reconstruction and recovery from the Mexican Revolution (1910-20)
At the same time, it also comes from the economic and social changes during the period of free oligopolistic politics. 1876-1911). (19)
The Diaz regime stressed that Mexico's cultural heritage and values are the way to the modern era. (20)
However, in the 19 th century, as it is today, Mexico is a hybrid country that mixes Spanish, indigenous and African heritage. The nation-
Construction Engineering, 1920-
46 try to change the precedent set by porfiriato, but reflect Mexico's mestizo history through the dual strategy of indigenismo and mestizaje.
The former emphasizes and promotes Mexico's indigenous heritage, while the latter praises Mexico's current mixed-blood virtues.
Pulque reflects both these ideologies and the situation in Mexico. (21)
Pulque is still a popular Mexican drink today, especially among tourists.
Many travel sites mention pulque specifically in their contacts with Aztec roots.
Website of the Mexican tourism bureau, visit Mexico, and the notespulque association of the Aztec gods ogitochi
"The God of pollack ". " (22)
The Tlaxcala tourism board described pulque and tortillas as the basis of the state's traditional cuisine and noted "tlaxcalteca food [has]ahighly pre-
The influence of Hispanics makes it unique and delicious. " (23)
Even current scholarships, such as food scientist Juan F.
Ramires, use this past.
The dialectics of the present
When discussing contemporary pulque consumption in Mexico, Ramires marked the current behavior as a "middle" drinking culture, where "modern elements [mix]
With ancestralcustom. " (24)
However, in these basic descriptions of pulque, it is often overlooked that the current consumption pattern is not a product of the residue of Aztec customs, but rather an act developed in the colonial era (1521-1821).
During the colonial period, Pok was so popular that on any day in Mexico City, it was said that as many people were the drunkard of PoK. (25)
In addition, thanks to the Spanish business system, the colonial authorities encouraged the widespread commercial cultivation of agave and pulque in order to create cash crops and taxable income for Spain. (26)
The impact of these changes is that by the late colonial period, the number of the most illegal pulquerias has climbed to more than 800, and pulque was previously restricted to drinking during the colonial period.
During the Colombian period, it became a "daily" Mexican drink. (27)
Most of the existing English pulque scholarships do not take into account the contradiction between colonial and post-colonial
Relations with Mexican nationalism.
On the contrary, due to the extensive merger of Pok during the colonial period, most of the Pok-centered scholarships focused on economics, using tax records and administrative reports as the primary source. (28)
Or, other scholars look at pulque from a cultural perspective, but generally from the perspective of the new culture history or the "black legend" of Spanish colonialism. (29)
From both academic perspectives, pulque and pulqueriasare either put in a different cultural meaning than the dominant discourse, or are considered in Gibson's discussion of alcohol abuse in Mexico.
Under the "black legend" of the colony, the inevitable result of independence. " (30)
However, watching pulque in both ways can ignore subtle personal motives and minimize the inherent disharmony in the history of pulque, not just at 1920-
It was also a colonial and modern period. (31)
Therefore, it is worth studying the description of pulque in a series of time periods, with special attention to the construction and mobilization of pulque's "history" in order to strengthen Mexico's concept during the national period --During the building.
Key figures for 1920-46 nation-
Construction project manual Gamioand Jose Vasconcelos believes that one of the most successful ways can achieve a strong sense of patriotism (fatherland)
Through extensive display of Mexican values and post-culture
Revolutionary Idea of Mexican identity.
Vasconcelos achieved this through the government
Sponsor the muralist project and Gamio before encouraging international tourism to visit Mexicocolonialruins. (32)
Deborah Poole, a human scholar, pointed out that the dissemination of stereotypes of this identity and culture profoundly affected the re-definition of types. (33)
Poole's argument provides a framework in which to evaluate how incentives for Gamio and vasconcelos can create a substantial Mexican "type" that promotes the ideas of Mexicans
This article tries to understand why 1920 of Mexican artists and intellectuals
46 perperiod builds such a unified and consistent Pok image, a notorious past, but without a "identity" drink in most of its history. In thepre-
There were three levels of pulpit during the colonial period. -
Fino, ordinario, otomite--
They all reflect significant regional, social and economic differences. (34)
If so, how does this different drink become a unified "bebida nacional?
Also, when the actual consumption of Mexicans has experienced a sharp decline since the 1980 generation, why has pulqueremain been a symbol of Mexicans, especially among modern tourists? (35)
I think this country
The construction period convincingly built pulque into a "type" that represents the former
The roots of the Columbian people and the brave everyday elements that are now vital to the Mexicans.
I explore how these economic structures make up traditional inventions, including the colonial history of Pulak and the least controversial aspects of the domestic history of Pulak.
I think Pulque is not a traditional symbol of Mexican identity, but a symbol of a high degree of mediation.
Pulque is one of three typical "Mexican" drinks, the others are tequila and Mai.
These three are all made of agave, but due to its fermentation process, it cannot be exported as much as the others, because it will soon become sour. (36)
Pulque is also considered the oldest of the three drinks, although often
Repeated stories can be traced back to the mysterious talte civilization. (37)
In contrast, tequila and macadamia appeared during colonial times, and they took advantage of different parts of the plant, namely, the root and lower leaves of the pigeon. (38)
While tequila is commonly referred to today as the official drink of Mexico, due to its relative inproximity, many scholars and tourism literature still refer to it as the true "bebida nacional ", this makes it a typical "Mexico" in a way that tequila is not ". (39)
The flower bed is produced from the flower bed center of agave or the nectar of Quette. (40)
The Spaniard soon realized the value of agavi, and in 1570 King Philip II sent scientist Frances korondez to conduct his first colonial study of the plant. (41)
Pulp production starts with removing Quette and extracting juice from this cavity.
This process was recorded in some of the Travel Notes of the 1930 s;
Catherine Anne Potter described the process in her novel, The Manor, as Pulk used
From Colombia to modern times.
She noted that Pulque is associated with two famous Mexican festivals: the day of the dead and the day of the Virgin Guadalupe. (43)
During the death celebration, various foods, possibly pulque, were provided to the families of the deceased. (44)
These products are mixed with the traditional
Colombian goods and more modern food introduced during the colonial period.
Interestingly, however, during these festivals, the celebrators will still join pulque to support more common modern drinks such as tequila or beer.
Pulk is more closely associated with the symbolic connection of the Lady of Guadalupe. Guadalupe is the patron saint of Mexico.
On a field trip in Juan, in his 1950 s, anthropologist John Bushnell observed that during the 5 th period, the statue of the Virgin was worshipped with lifted pulque glasses, declaring "pulque-
Virgin milk. " (45)
Bushnellargued believes that this connection stems from the real "life" of agave "--
Provide "value in parts of Mexico with little contact with towels. (46)
He noted, "In many San Juan families, Prak is actually the only liquid absorbing bed.
This is the baby's first food in addition to breast milk.
Children and adults drink milk during meals every day. " (47)
Bushnell concluded: "It is no wonder that this drink is related to a virgin as a surrogate mother. " (48)
Despite these two traditional associations, Mexico and 1920-
46 conflicts.
On the one hand, pulque represents Mexico's profound historical origins, which the Mexican government has emphasized to travelers.
Vade, Mexico-
The visitor's guide, an American writer's guide published by the Turismo department, begins by saying, "We hope that our traditions and original customs will fill you with admiration. " (49)
But at home, the government has linked Polak to the fall of morality and nutrition. -
A commentary by historian Jeffrey Pilcher that is less factual (
Pul is actually quite rich in nutrition)
What worries the government is that traditional foods like pulque and tortillas are "backward" and "native" and thus hinder the modernization of Mexico. (50)
The government's concern about the international community's view of Mexico is mainly due to the spread of negative foreign images after the Mexican Revolution, as shown in figure 2. (51)Mark C.
Anderson studied the description of Mexicans in the American media in 1913
15 and it is found that such an image overwhelmingly implies that unless Mexico places this "backward" behavior, such as its perceived tendency towards drunkenness, it will continue along the path of the selfannihilation. (52)
This negative impression will continue to plague Mexico
The period of architecture and became the basis of the "pulque debate" in the 1940 s and 1930 s
Still, Mexico started a twin country in 1920-
The construction strategy of Ofindigenismo and mestizaje embraces and rewrites its Aboriginal inhabitants, in addition to "backwards. " [
Figure 2:
There are two important events in this country.
The construction process, as well as the two great opportunities to improve Mexico's image abroad and at home, is right before
Colonial site byMexican anthropologist Gamio Manuel was founded in 1913 by the Ministry of Education of theMexican by José de vazkonselos in 1921.
The former is committed to promoting the mythical and historical indigenous roots of Mexico to both domestic and international audiences, while the latter sponsors teaching programs across Mexico to promote the national self
Mixed-blood status in Mexico
Both sides are trying to be in front of Mexico.
Colonial and indigenous heritage.
The excavation of the sites of teotivacan and Chichen Itza has attracted great attention from the international community and has made Mexico boast of its profound and important pre-colonial history. (53)
These findings help to form a new "Mexican patriot ". " (54)
He studied under the guidance of anthropologist Franz Boas and was deeply influenced by Boas's theory of "cultural relativity ---
A theory against universal existence
A century of empirical thought on progress.
Boas believes that if progress is a relative concept,
European countries like Mexico can eventually "compete" with European countries in their own standards, their own history, and may break the trend of imitating European behavior to achieve "progress.
"Gamio believes that by unlocking the secrets of its indigenous heritage, Mexico can provide a proud, unified and modern national ideology throughout Mexico.
Another outstanding country.
Architectural Ideology during 1920
Mestizaje is also concerned about the modernization of the country.
Mestizaje is closely related to the idea of education minister Jose Vasconcelos, whose idea is between 1921 and 1924.
Like indigenismo, mestizaje focuses on integrating all cultural elements into Mexican society ---
Civilians and indigenous people in particular. (55)
The difference is one of the key points.
Indigenismo emphasizes the importance of Indians, while mestizaje is more concerned with promoting creolized of Spain and indigenous peoples in Mexico. (56)
Vasconcelos believes that mass art provides a window of communication for all Mexicans by creating and promoting a widely involved national image.
The biggest project he is responsible for implementing these ideas is the country --
A wide range of muralist artist projects sponsored by the Mexican Ministry of Education. (57)
The main artist of the early Mexican mural renaissance is Diego Rivera (1887-1957), Jose Orozco (1883-1949)
And David alphalo siquiros (1897-1974)
The Ministry of Education commissioned them to make buildings on the walls of public buildings and spaces, including formal churches and monasteries, secondary schools, universities and medical facilities. (58)
Vasconcelos launched a program of clear teaching and National murals
Building use. (59)
Vasconcelos has sponsored Rivera and other muralists to visit archaeological sites in Mexico, including chichimitza, to inspire and inform the mural project. (60)
Many of the most famous projects, such as the Rivera Palacio Nacional murals in Mexico City, combine the splendor and grandeur of Mexico's native and Mayan history with modern elements, just like the revolutionary and proletarian workers(61)
Rivera even tried to paint educa de Educacion murals using nopal cactusjuice as a pigment adhesive, a type used for pre-
Teotivacan during the colonial period. (62)
Although Vasconcelos left the Ministry of Education on the 24 th of 19 th, the work of muralists continued, and Rivera and Orozco gained an international reputation in particular.
Many people who are still
Emblematic images from Mexico come from brushes from Rivera, Orozco, orRivera's wife Frida kalo.
Rivera and kalo are particularly notable for their value to everyday elements of Mexican life.
Rivera has carefully shaped the image of a daily Mexican worker for himself, always wearing Carpenter's overalls and working 12-hour days. (63)
Carlo is engaged in a similar performance element of Mexican culture, dressed in traditional Aboriginal clothing, before wearing
She even knit her hair in a traditional way. (64)
Rivera and kalo have also promoted pulque and pulqueri as symbols of Mexican national identity.
From 1943 to 1953, both Kalou and Rivera were art teachers at La Esmeralda, the Mexican revolutionary alternative art school, and in this capacity, they all extended Mexico's ideas well to 1940(65)
Carol encouraged her students to draw on the walls of pulquerias as a way to learn "everyday" Mexican painting, Rivera described his painting style ---
Mural with strong social conscience-
Painting as "pulqueria. " (66)
Rivera and kalo's public outreach to pulquerias is 1920-
46 perperiod describes pulqueri as a symbol of Mexico's "reality. (67)
In addition, the love of Rivera and Carlo for Pok has influenced the journey of contemporary Mexico;
I have noticed several "Frida Carlo routes" provided by the travel company, including stopsat pulquerias, as well as a visit to Carlo and Rivera' shouses. (68)
Suddenly, dirty, often sick pulquerias
The colonial squatters were considered a series of traditional cultural ties dating back to the totecs and Aztecs.
This is interesting.
Colonial legislation calls for the opening of pulquerias in three areas to prevent illegal acts and delays. (69)
However, during the muralists period, the word "pulqueria painting" was used as a synonym for "Mural", referring to the daily subject matter, and cultivated by Diego River and others(70)
Art critic Jeraldine Kraver considers painting in Mexico's long history of murals, and heralds the promotion of vasconcelos as a return to home. (71)
In the mural "La Danza de Huichilobos" in rivera, this "return" to tradition is particularly obvious (
Dance of TheHuichilobos)
He painted the painting for the Reforma Hotel in Mexico City in 1936 and is now placed on the third floor of Bellas ArtesPalace in Mexico City. (72)
In this mural, pulquerias became more intimate with the heroic image of Mexicanidad and ancient Mexico.
"La Danza de Huichilobos" is not described from pre-
Colombia used to, but to be more precise, during the French occupation of Mexico in 1864, the local army defeated the forces of Maximilian --67. (73)
Rivera portrayed this modern victory as a traditional dance of victory, incorporating elements of contemporary and ancient times ---
The Mexican soldiers in the mural are dressed in feather headdresses and leather sandals.
Painter Maltby Skyes said that although Rivera was dressed on the 19 th, he helped Rivera with the hotel's Reforma mural.
The century uniform on the surface represents [s]
God of the Aztec war" (74)
Against the backdrop of this victory is a brand of pulqueria, "LaGran Victoria ".
"Here, Rivera elevated the symbolic value of pulquerias from the tavern to the witnesses who participated in the glorious history of Mexico.
Rivera's 1944 paintings "Las Ilusiones" provide almost ethnographic details about pulque production. (75)
In the painting, a man is depicted as a donkey transporting the skin of a pig on a donkey.
Pig skins or other animal skins are traditional pulp containers, and the pulp industry is still a cottage industry even in its 1930 s. (76)
In addition, pulque's grade "fino" is written on the pulqueria wall behind men, showing a continuation of the pre-colonial tradition of selling different grades of pulque. (77)
However, "Las Ilusiones" is a bit of a romantic production.
Although pulp production was still a cottage industry in many parts of the 1930 s,
The City of Mexico and Oaxaca began a large-scale industrial process. Oaxaca is the traditional center of the Prak production colonial period. (78)
By contrast, travel writer Catherine Anne Porter describes the paintings on the estate in a less romantic way.
Porter tells how the inherited peons connected to the estate "started pouring the fermented pulp into the bucket and poured the fresh maguey water into the reeking bull vats.
Chanting, counting, and rolling down the slope of the bucket began again. " (79)
Peons then rolled the barrels onto a train for Mexico City. -
A more industrialized, more unusual image of pulp production than Rivera has cultivated.
In addition, by the time of 1930 s, especially in urbancentres, pulque sellers provided alikenon-for travelers and Mexicans-
Traditional fruit
The taste is optional, such as "conpina Pulque" or pineapple juice pulque.
Rivera's paintings depict such "unreal ".
"Like Rivera and Carol, the mural of Jose Roscoe, wrote a letter to fellowpainter asking the chariot to introduce theirwalls pulquerias and the" Mexico thing "on the painting "---
A symbol of everyday Mexican life. (80)
Orozco, following Rivera and kalo, promoted the pulquerias concept related to each Mexican, not just the civilian class, pulque circulated as an Aztec tradition for daily use
Orosco's painting, Edger la otella, depicts a painting that appears in the background with the Aztec goddess Mayahuel. (81)
Reshaping the elements of Mexican life in this symbolic way has inspired thousands of Americans in their 1930 s to travel to exotic lands where the Aztec tradition seems to have survived.
However, the traveler's initial reaction to pulque reflects a complex feeling about the drink.
Terry, Mexico (1923)
Reminder not to "tourists who taste roadside drinks and dishes because of novelty ". "(82)
Terry described how Mexico's "old inhabitants" like himself did not trust the drinks;
He suggested drinking boiled water or milk. (83)
His statement reveals concerns about engagement with civilians or servants who do not understand the basic principles of health. " (84)
Campbell's newly revised complete guide to Mexico (1909)
Similar emotions were expressed.
Campbell observed the "pulque loot (
If it can be destroyedwithin twenty-fourhours.
If you drink wine, you must drink it immediately;
This may explain the energy of Mexicans in this direction. " (85)
Campbell and Terry suggested that Mexicans were not only unsanitary, but drank a lot ---and with gusto.
However, at the age of 1930, many American travelers have ignored such health problems and turned to experience these Mexican "symbols" in person ".
Asusan Smith's "Glory of Venus", Catherine Porter's "manor" and Larry Barreto's "Mexico of light" and other fictional narratives, among them
"Smith's work features a New York socialite who evades an unpleasant love affair and finds peace and satisfaction in a variety of activities --
In a pulpit called the glory of Venus. " (86)
It is no surprise that there is quite a bit of interaction between these writers and the muralists described earlier.
Riverand kalo spent most of the time in New York and Detroit in early 1930, where erivera exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art and started (
But never finished)
A controversial mural at Rockefeller Center(87)
Jose Orosco spent most of his time in New York in late 1920 and early 1930;
He is a private friend of Susan Smith, depicting all the images for the glory of Venus. (88)
In addition, Edward Weston, one of the most famous American travel photographers of the period, is a close friend of Rivera, and Weston specializes in a series of photos-
They are portrayed as heroes of the Mexican landscape, but natural and rustic signs. (89)
Weston's work was also on display in the 1920 s in Palacio Belas Altes, Mexico City, where historian Mikel Miller called the exhibition "a sensation ". . .
Praise byMexican artists. " (90)
All these interactions between Muralists, Mexican intellectuals, American artists and travelers have profoundly created the standardized ideas of Mexicans by spreading the typical Mexican "image.
Visitors will look for these "types" when visiting, so that they can also experience a typical Mexican tour.
This desire for tourists prompted Larry Barreto to warn tourists to "try ["pulque]
Anyway, but don't try too often. " (91)
However, the travel notes from 1920 are consistent
Issue 46 is to see Mexico as a neighboring country in the world, a country with the "pre-history" described by Terry's guide
Dating pilgrims. " (92)
This attitude may have originated in the United States. S.
President Franklin Roosevelt's "good neighbor" policy, nevertheless, represents a negative image of the Mexican Revolution.
However, what is needed to create this persuasive national identity?
The main content includes redefining pulque as an Aztec drink and highlighting aspects in which its cultural value exceeds its social controversy.
Charlot notes that "pulqueria paintings" as folk art are often despised because pulque production is associated with "this aesthetic excess bacchanalian smoke" of the working class. (93)
Tourism literature in this period also indirectly refers to the domestic debate around the future of pulque and pulqueindustry.
An article by The New York Times in 1935-
In the same year, Pazpublished a del Pulque published-
Mexico kicked off against pockle.
The new and higher taxes on alcoholic beverages are announced in the south of the Rio Grande strike mainly in this traditional Mexican drink. " (94)
The Mexican government has two concerns,
First of all, pulque is unhygienic and alcoholic.
Induced drinks that pose a special danger to indigenous communities in Mexico, and secondly, this drink is an appropriate component of Mexico's new "modern" identity.
Historian Ben Huey believes that the Mexican ban on ideology
With the promotion of indigenismo and mestizaje, it exists and shows how some government revolutionists, such as the governor of El Salvador Alvarado in Yucatan, think that the ban is(95)
On 1942 and 1939, two Mexican sociologist Lucio menditha Núñez and Francesco Rojas González respectively published special articles on these contents of the debate, which is an unfeasible and unhealthy industry. (96)
Mendieta y Nunez, along with statistics from the Consejero del division of AsuntosIndigenas, believes that as many as 60% of Aboriginal people are drunk every day due to the efficient production of alcohol by the Spaniards and the introduction of foreign alcoholic beverages. (97)
Men are usually more likely to get drunk than women, but Mendieta y Nunez warns that, especially during the festival, both men and women drink pulque with high quality and give it(98)
Finally, he concluded that pulque encouraged indigenous peoples to commit violent crimes such as homicide, to the extent that all indigenous peoples (maguey)
Plants in Mexico should be removed.
In addition to that, he suggested that more taxes be imposed on pulp and that strict prosecution be carried out against those who illegally sell and manufacture alcoholic beverages. (99)
Rojas Gonzalez did not take a strong position as Mendieta yNunez did, but he did suggest that land occupation by the Spanishand hacisystem system resulted in a vicious circle leading to alcohol abuse.
The manor system began initially under Spanish rule, but continued until 1917, when it was agreed to be formally abolished. (100)
Rojas González believes that the Manor destroyed the landscape of Mexico and pushed civilians and indigenous communities to barren valleys without water or water. (101)
Due to this situation, Rojas ezezasserted claimed that "in order to relieve thirst of all ages, people have the right to consume a large amount of Magi juice every day. " (102)
However, in many cases, people, indigenous peoples and civilians at the center of the pulp debate support the pulp industry for traditional and economic reasons.
As Paz pointed out in the title page of EnDefensa del Pulque, the industry employs thousands of Mexicans: "668,677 people work in pulqueindustry ---
Respect must be given to the way these people live. "(103)
In addition, many of these workers do not have other means of making a living financially.
The government promised to redistribute the manor to indigenous communities as a multi-faceted land (
Public property in agriculture)
Never achieved its intended purpose, the desire to ban Pulak and hassidas was hand in handin-
Severely punish people who illegally fermented pulp. (104)
Unfortunately, most of these illegal small pulp producers live in indigenous communities and, for traditional reasons such as the worship of the Virgin Guadalupe, they engage in this practice. (105)
However, compared to economic reasons, the government may be persuaded to try to ban Pok less for social or health reasons.
Beeras was introduced to Mexico during the colonial period and commercialized in 19 years and 28 years. (106)
Then during the US ban1920-33)
Many American companies bring their wine
The distillation of the factory to Mexico has created great opportunities. (107)
Perhaps the main focus of the government is not on alcohol abuse, but rather on luremo's desire to get rid of traditional indigenous drinks, such as Pok, into more "modern" drinks ---
More profitable, of course. -Drink like a beer
Although different points of view are expressed in "pulquedebate", a common theme is how pulque is considered a combination of the origins of Aztec, Toltec and Maya
The wine that the 1940-generation Mexican scholar Alfredo Barrera Vasquez is trying to offer is also a Mayan drink.
Although his evidence is uncertain, this type of scholarship reflects 1920-
During this period, pulque was part of the unification of Mexico. (108)
In general, this period of mural homes through stylized Aztec iconography, mimicking images and designs such as in codicice Borgia and other early pre-colonialtexts. (109)
However, muralists selectively re-created elements of the Aztec past, especially in their handling of the story of the origin of pulque.
Two versions of the story explain pulque's findings, each highlighting the image of an innovator.
In the first one, the goddess mayahuel discovered agave, its nectar-
Share it with other gods.
In the second version, a woman named Xochitl showed the Peach of the agave plant to Tecpancaltzin, the ruler of toltke. (110)
In both versions, there is a close connection between what Taylor calls "divine feminine temperament" and Discovery pockle.
However, the murals in Mexico and writers in the United States have turned the traditional male drink into a pure wine, eliminating its female roots. (111)
Another important thing in the history of Pulque is its usagepatterns ---
Especially as consumption of daily drinks.
Under the Aztec rule, consumption is not a universal phenomenon, but an exclusive, elite and restricted activity. (112)
The Aztecs limit consumption to holiday time and medical use, and further control the consumption of the social class.
These patterns are recorded in the Florence code, which is before Mexico.
The colonial history recorded by Father Bernardino de sahakon in the 1560 and 1570 s. (113)
The Florentine code explained that during the festival celebrations, aztecspriest limited the consumption of pulque to "only four cups of pulque, not five cups of pulque, so that there would be no one" (114)
Our knowledge of pulque as an elite drink also comes from the Florence code.
In an article, Sahagun described how the dead were treated during the Aztec Orenda period, only "the rich sing and drink in honor of these gods and their dead: the poor can only provide food. " (115)
Anthropologist Stanley branders points out that there are striking similarities between these culinary aspects of the Aztec mortuary ceremony and contemporary death celebrations. (116)
However, emphasizing the commonality between Aztec and the use of modern pulp rituals, ignoring the long history of colonial drinks, during which its use was expanded.
This expansion, which may have surpassed the history of Aztec, is now discovered in the contemporary era of the death ceremony.
Even though reality is more complex, Aztec's portrayal and description of Pulk as a "daily" drink goes with it --in-
Communication with tourists, the art of muralists, and even literary works around the "pulque debate.
"The day-to-day aspect of the consumption and use of this Pulak did not appear until colonial times, nor did Pulak, as an institution, begin until the widespread commercialism of Pulak under Spanish colonial rule.
What colonialism has left Pok is not just a popular legacy ---
It was in the colonial era that the contradictory relationship between the state and the public towards Pulak emerged.
The main reason for Polk's expansion during the colonial period was that the colonial elite invested economic benefits in Polk's sales and production.
After the Spanish conquest, Pok's planting range was wider due to geographical and cultural reasons, including the waterfall lake in the Mexican valley, which made the land more arid and barren-
Under these conditions, agave thrive. (117)
No matter what concerns people have about Pok's social ills, the economic opportunities brought about by Pok's trade are too much for the elite and middle class.
Class citizens boycott. (118)
Historian John E.
Kicza found that pulque production and pulqueria ownership in the Mexican city is mainly an elite field in which many penisareques (
Spanish citizens living in Mexico)participated. (119)
However, the ownership of pulquerias is not limited to the elite and manymiddle-
The Mexican class will have the management of pulqueria or pulqueria as a way to improve social and economic status.
The Pok of this period was not only a broad commodity, but also attached to the elite and middle class. class elements--
Description minimizes inRivera's conceptualisation of pulquerias as it only "works"men studies.
"In the post-colonial period, Pulquerias did start to attract more and more attention because they thought it was related to debauchery.
In addition to bullfighting and other "illegal" public activities, the Bourbon reform in the late eighteenth century also targeted prakuolas, the administrative reforms enacted by the Spanish Supreme Court have blocked the flow of such public activities through moral movements. up policing. (120)
The reforms were centred around "thepleb", which he estimated to account for 80 of the urban population and whose activities were carried out mainly in "public" spaces. (121)
The government is concerned that the non-restricted social mix of civilians in public spaces and the lack of shame to openly represent social chaos and unrest. (122)
Since 1692, concerns about Pok's relationship with domestic unrest have been growing steadily.
Colonial administrators value pulque's taxes. -
It produces thousands of pesos every year--
But the colonial elite also saw the drink as an instigator of poison and violence.
The 1692-kilogram grain riots in Mexico City are the most impressive examples.
The riot began with the death of a civilian woman in a protest on the market over a shortage of goods, but the main tension was civilian anger at rising grain prices. (123)
City authorities in Mexico City have accused "India of drunkenness" and plot to burn down the city palace hatched in appurcoria. (124)
For fear of violence against indigenous people and civilians, in Mexico City, except for medical purposes, Pulak was not banned until 1697. (125)
However, Pulque cannot be thrown away forever.
Even BourbonReforms cannot ignore its economic value as an important source of income for many middle classesand upper-
First class Mexicans and its value to colonial wallets.
On the contrary, the relationship between the colony and pulqueremained is a conflict relationship, which can be seen from the many casta paintings of the period.
The Spanish bureaucracy designed the "sister cast "(Castle System)
As a means of social control, organize population according to various social factors
Racial categories such as Criollo (
Spanish born in Latin America), mestizo (
Descendants of Spain and indigenous peoples),mulato (
Descendants of Africa and Spain)
In a separate category, India. (126)
Casta painting works as a social mechanismmiddle-
In the Spanish Creole and Peninsula classes, the class audience's commitment to white justice. (120)
These pictures depict marriages between individuals of different classes and are labeled with corresponding background information.
Acriollo and mestizo may be portrayed as an idyllic home setting.
In contrast, a photo featuring lobo's home (
Descendants of Indians and Africans)
Anda Mulato may include acts of violence or other negative symbols. (128)
Some casta paintings depicting pulque or pulquerias, including many mixed members of the casta class, reinforce pulque as both a daily civilian activity and often suspicious activity, although
Nevertheless, despite the emergence of a rare image of drunken Aboriginal citizens or other members of the lower caste, the description of pulque and pulqueria in these paintings is not always negative or judgmental. (129)
Art historian Ilona Katzew argues that due to topulque's economic value and Spain's pride in their lucrative new world "discovery", most of the descriptions of pulque are mild(130)
Colonial administrators supported Pok's economic potential, but denounced the drink for its apparent toxic and morally corrupt property.
This contradictory relationship will continue to modern times.
A judicial report published in 1849 attributed the crime at the center of Mexico City to the presence of pulquerias. (131)
Following the report, a police decree was issued on 1850, which passed a motion urging the government to prevent a meeting in pulquerias. (132)The earlypost-
During the colonial period, people's fear of morality and Plak continued.
Historian Susie Porter discusses how the "moral movement" in the last quarter of the 19 th century made women stand outside of pulquerias. (133)
This restriction limits the role of women in the family and the lives of many staff members --
Indigenous women who earn a living outside pulquerias. (134)
At the same time, however, pulque remains a valuable economic commodity for Manor owners, and the Mexican government recognizes the international promotion of pulque's cultural currency to those who have demonstrated the ancient history of Mexico.
At the 1889 World Expo in Paris, Mexico has shown a remarkable display of José Obregon's El desqubrimende Pok, a description(135)
Mexico is concerned about its international image as a new country and wants to show that it has the same profound historical origins and traditions as European countries.
At the same time, the government opposes what people think is "the natural tendency of Indians to drink alcohol ". " (136)
In the same periodto-
At the end of the 19 th century, through the etching of José Guadalupe Posada, pulp was popularized at home as a symbol of civilians and indigenous peoples.
After adapting the material culture of ordinary Mexicans, attract people to ascalaveras (skeletons)
Engaged in a variety of daily activities. (137)
When Orosco was ten years old, he watched Posada's work in his studio and encouraged him to create popular, politicized works of art. (138)
Rivera also pointed out that Posada inspired him to challenge the status quo and create political art. (139)
Even travel notes from central China
In the 19 th century, Pok was regarded as an important part of daily life.
Fanny Calderon de la Barca, a Mexican tourist in her 1840 s, observed the popularity and controversy of Pulak and noted that in rural areas, "Pulak is a generic drink,but]in Mexico [City]
Tortillas and tortillas are considered unfashionable. " (140)
The campaign against pulque took place in the late Porfiriato as well as in the 1940 s and 1930 s, during which there was fear of pulque being unhealthy, unsanitary and "backward ".
"In 1920, however-46 nation-
During the period of construction, despite the internal heated debate, Mexican states and intellectuals felt the need to return to the Mexican homeland to look for symbols of nationalism, such as maizawa or Pok. (141)
This is a "imagination" after"
Mexican Revolutionary community linked by participation in material culture-
Including Pollack's consumption. -
The idea of pulqueand Mexicanidad left a lasting impression.
Raul grero said, "from conquest to today, Pok has been a fundamental part of Mexican culture. " (142)
The National Institute of Anthropology and History of Mexico published the grero book in 1985, which was presented as an authoritative work on Pok's history.
Without mentioning the domestic controversy surrounding Pok in the 1930 s and 1940 s, grero did not reflect on the long history of PoK as a colonial commodity.
Instead, greello reflects on two series of images that represent the history of pulque: images from ancient times, such as images from the Florence code, and from recent images, like those in Posada's pen of pulque
Drink Calaveras(143)
There is a similar disconnect in the memory of other modern poquire and Mexicans.
Between 1920 and 1946, the travel account and muralartwork conceptualized pulquerias as a "male salon for work", but pulquerias are usually managed by women, from multiple in the colonial period
During the colonial period, Pok had a long-standing connection with the "holy woman", from the origins of Toltec and Aztec to itsincorporation, at that time, many women were running outside pokeras and in modern contact with the Lady of Guadalupe. (144)
This practice of redefining pulque as a male beverage and the male field of pulquerias seems to suggest another "tradition of invention" in Mexico "---
Although "women have entered this official discourse more than ever before", they are mainly as assistants to the male revolutionary, or, like Kalou, by accepting the practice of "men,
Drink and smoke. (145)
Perhaps even more striking is that, while the drink is still popular in rural areas, most of 1940 of Mexico City residents think the drink is "old"
And gave it up and turned to a more modern drink-beer. (146)
However, the persuasive image of Mexican workers drinking pulque and pulque as the real "bebida nacional" still exists.
At the time of writing, the Tlaxcala Tourism Bureau described pulque as an "indispensable" accompaniment to traditional Tlaxcala foods such as handmade white or blue tortillas. (147)
It has scrolling flash pictures on its main page, which have pictures of bullfighting.
This is an interesting contrast, as bullfighting, like pulque, is considered "outdated" in many ways and is not conducive to the modernization of Mexico's country.
Here, however, both pulpit and bullfighting are seen as prototypes of the Mexican "tradition. " (148)
The inspection of pulque revealed two things about Mexico's construction.
First, the elimination of colonial history is a conscious part of the country.
Second, in order to "invent tradition" in the new era of Mexican identity, the countless history of these symbols needs to be flattened and original.
According to historian Enrique Krauze, "the birth of Mexico as an independent state coincides with its exclusion of colonial traditions. " (149)
The symbolic significance of Pok's colonial history is particularly noteworthy and ironic, because it is during this period that modern consumption patterns have developed.
In order to portray Pok as a "traditional" product, muralists achieved it by eliminating social criticism that was prevalent in PoK and its colonial history in the 1930 and 1940 s.
Pulk's transition from colonial economic goods to cultural goods
The revolutionary presented ideas about the changing status of indigenous and civilian communities in the then-formed New Mexican national identity.
However, the conscious rejection of certain elements in pulqueshistory also reveals the post-
Revolutionary Organization of Mexico
If the values of Mexicans are traditional, if Pok is indeed from the previous
In the Colombian era, there will be no "pulque debate" and Mexico will not have to consciously present certain elements of its culture to outsiders in order to re-classify.
However, in order to find Mexico's place in a modern country and to create a widely involved national identity, Mexicans have greatly reduced Pok's complex history and significance --
Simplified collection of symbols.
In making the national drink, Mexico created a prototype in the hope that it will echo with all Mexicans, regardless of their race, region or social backgroundeconomic level.
Lopez's appeal to material culture is described as follows: "Even today, Mexicans and foreigners can
A popular Mexican art work is to take something bigger than a simple item.
It will support Mexico with its diversity, rich past, complex present and uncertain future. " (140)
I think Pok has the same appeal.
Pulque became a symbol of Mexico because it represents the dual value of the post-society.
Revolutionary ideology-
Represent the ancient history of Mexico and the history of its heroic civilian gifts in a unique sip.
Tequila is likely to be more famous today, and beer consumption is wider, but for many Mexicans, "bebida nacional" remains true. (151)(1)
Larry Barreto, bright Mexico (New York, 1935), p. 37. (2)
Raul greello of elpock (Mexico, 1985)
The back cover of the book. (3)
Barreto, bright Mexicovii. (4)
Susan Smith's non-
Fictional travel notes made in Mexico (New York, 1931), p. 24. (5)
These feelings of travel in Mexico are reflected in a series of books in the 19 th century, including "The bright Mexico" Barretta;
The glory of Venus: A Novel of modern Mexico by Susan SmithNew York, 1931);
Smith made in Mexico and Catherine Anne Porter of the Manor (New York, 1934).
Pulque is a mild fermented alcoholic beverage made from agave plants-
A plant native to Mexico. (6)
Henry brueman, wine from ancient Mexico
Salt Lake City, 2000),pp. 12-15, 61-82. (7)
Latino in Daily News (New York)
In March 15, 2008, 15 years and 75 years after his first visit to Manhattan.
Html, she points out that Kalou doesn't like the "pre-tension" of New York that she thinks "---
Many rich people wait in line for food while drinking cocktails.
In contrast, Herrera believes kalo prefers the pulque of "democracy--
What does it mean.
For my definition of Mexicanidad, I draw on the ideas presented in the volume edited by Mary Kay Van Gan and Stephen E.
Eagle and Virgin: national and cultural revolution in Mexico, 1920-1940 (Durham, 2006). (8)
Pulquerias is a pub that consumes pulque.
Maltby Skyes, Diego Rivera and hotel reform murals, Archives of American Art Magazine 25 (1985), p. 35. (9)
"La bebida nacional" is transformed into a national drink. (10)
John Bushnell, "surrogate mother of San Juan Azigo, the Virgin of Guadalupe", American Anthropologist 60 (April1958), p.
265. Francisco Rojas Gonzalez, a Mexican sociologist
Ethnografico del Alcoholismo entre los Indian deMexico, "Revista Mexico Ana de Sociologia, month (
Second quarter, 1942):pp. 121-
Pay attention to the popularity of pulque. (11)
Vaughan and Lewis in The Eagle and the Virgin mark the beginning of the Mexican nation
Construction began in 1920 and the term of President Alvaro bregon (
The biggest countries in Mexico.
The construction projects include ethnic mixed race, indigenismo, the mural of the Minister of Education of startof)
Until the end of President Lazaro kadunas's term of office on 1940.
Although my research started at 19 years 20, I have extended my life cycle to 1946 to take into account Michael Miller's red, white and green (El Paso, 1998)
Known as "the maturity of Mexico" at 1940-
Include more types of major sources. (12)Rick A.
"Mexican art and mass art" by Lopez, Vaughan and Lewis, Eagles and virgins"24-
26 Please note that during the centennial celebration on 1921, the organizers worked hard to incorporate the civilian elements into the celebration ---
Including the sale of popular food. (13)
Jose pas, En Defensa del Tequila (Mexico, 1935).
Paz's book is probably written by himself.
Although neither this nor the circulation is confirmed.
In any case, his book suggests that individuals of this period can understand the dichotomy of ancient/modern in essence, even in a very small range. (14)
Larry Barretta's observation in bright Mexico is also an exception (pp. 161-62)
Some indigenous ceramic bowls are the hallmark of colonialism, just like the Habsburg eagle. (15)
This negative image continues today, according to greello, elpok, p. 1.
On January 31, 1930, the New York Times discussed concerns about the impact of newspapers in the 1930 s.
9 and Alan Knight, "the pop culture and evolutionary state of Mexico, 1910-
1940, Spanish American History Review No. 743 (August 1994), p. 397. (16)
Paz, Minister of Defense del pock10-12. (17)
Introduction: The tradition of invention by Eric horsbaum and Terrance Ranger (eds. )
Traditional invention (Cambridge, 2002), pp. l-14. (18)Ibid. , p. 14. (19)
Enrique Kraus, Mexico Biography of Power: History of Modern Mexico, 1810-1996 (New York, 1997), pp. 1-22. The Porfiriato(1876-1911)was the seven-
Liberal leader pofirio Diaz's dictatorship(20)
Krauze, Mexico, Biography of Power, 1-22. (21)
Nikolai Miller in the shadow of the country: Intellectuals and the pursuit of national identity
United States century SpainNew York, 1999), pp. 138-52; Rick A.
Lopez and David burlatin had a good discussion on Lopez's Aboriginal issues, "1921 India Bonita competition and the nationalisation of Mexican national culture", Historical review of Hispanic Americans2002), pp. 291-328;
Brading, "Manuel Gamio of Mexico and official Indigenismo", Journal of American Studies, 7 (1988), pp. 75-89. (22)
Mexico tourism bureau, "Tepoztlan, Morelos: Refugio delos dises" visited Mexico (
Consejo de Promoclon turistademexico, 2007)
Visit _ Tepoztlan.
This website is the result of the initiative of the Mexican house tourism delegation. (23)
Travel, food, Tlaxcala Turismo. com (
Official website of Tlaxcala Tourism Bureau, 2009), (24)Juan F. Ramirez et al.
The industrialisation of Mexico by Keith Steinkraus (ed. )
Manual of domestic fermented food (New York, 2004), p. 549. (25)John E.
Kicza, "Pulque trade in the late colonial Mexican city", 37-year-old American2 (October 1980), p.
197 and MichaelC.
Scardaville, alcohol and pub reform in Mexico City in the post-colonial period, Hispanic American History Review, 60 (November1980), p. 646.
It is estimated that Scardaville used pulquefia to record the number of pulque sold on a daily basis and crossed with police records. (26)William B.
Taylor's drinking, killing and rebellion in Mexican colonial villagesStanford, 1979), pp. 25, 45. (27)
Drinking and pub reform646. (28)
The following works explore Pok under the colonial economy: Taylor, drinking, killing and rebellion;
"PulqueTrade" Kicza;
Drinking and pub reform;
And Juan Pedro viquilla Alban (trans. Sonya Lipsett-
Rivera and SergioRivera Ayala)
Etiquette and permission in Bourbon Mexico (
Wilmington, 1999). (29)
The new cultural history is a popular method of modern Latin American scholars. it regards cultural symbols as a form of "resistance" to dominant discourse and is based on James C. , a political economist.
Scott's work the weapon of the weak (New Haven,1985);
And the art of domination and resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven, 1990).
The "black legend" supported by the Aztec CharlesGibson under Spanish rule "(Stanford, 1964)
Seescolony is a force of destruction that has left indigenous communities devastated both in consciousness and physically. (30)
Tim Mitchell uses Scott to assess the identity of drunk consumption: the power of alcohol in Mexico's history and culture (New York, 2004), 24-25.
For a discussion on the art of pulqueria as a symbolic action, see Jean Chariot, Renaissance of Mexican murals, 1920-1925 (New York, 1980), pp. 35-39. (31)
For concerns about the unilateral application of the new culture history, see William H.
"Comment: False Mystic: partial Orthodox colonial Mexico", Historical Review of New Mexico, 82 (Winter 2007), pp. 1-2 ;
The false mystic Nora Jaffri: the evil of Mexico during the colonial period (Lincoln, 2004). (32)
Vaughan and Lewis, Eagles and virgins, page10-16. (33)
Deborah Poole, "image of our Indians": typos and ethnic sentiments of Wahaka, 1920-
1940, "Historical Review, 84 (2004), pp. 53-58.
I also draw on the findings of other scholars who study the role of material culture in promoting nationalism, such as Jeffrey M. Pilcher !
Rosta Marles!
The formation of food and Mexican identity (
Albuquerque, 1998); and W.
Dirk Rutter in Mexico pets and other stories
Dirk Rutter and William H. Beezley (eds. ), Twentieth-Century Mexico(
Lincoln, 1986), pp. 46-48. (34)
Aztec Gibson under Spanish rulep. 10. (35)
BBC News, December 26, 200436)
The drink has recently started to be exported in limited quantities: See the importer of Pulque La Lucha, PulqueLaLucha/pulque. html. (37)
The link between Pok and the toltke people is reflected in the painting of El desubrimiento depulque by José Obregon during Mexico's participation in 1889 World Expo (c. 1869)
It was prominently displayed as part of the Mexican exhibition.
The painting is discussed in detail at maurico Tenorio at 1889 World Expo
Trillo, Mexico, at the World Expo: making modern countries (Berkley, 1996), pp. 118-21.
Brueman, in ancient Mexican alcohol. 63-
Trying to track pock's findings.
According to the myth, he believes that the first people to discover Pok may be the Mayan group Huaxin card, although this statement has not been confirmed. (38)
Reau Campbell, a newly revised complete guide and descriptive book for Mexico (Chicago, 1909), p. 13. (39)
Greg, elpock, page. 1-6.
It's interesting, especially since tequila is a more creamy, typical "Mexican" drink that just starts with mass production and colonial distillation. (40)
Brueman, wine from ancient Mexico61.
Although brueman's book was published in 2000, his book was based on the results of his previously unpublished doctoral thesis study, which was conducted in Mexico in the 19 th century.
So this book is also the main source of this period, 1920-
46, demonstrating the strong interest of the international community in the indigenous population of Mexico
Colombian people used to be particularly interested in alcoholic beverages. (41)
Padz, Defense Minister del Pok3. (42)
Potter, Manor, p. 22. (43)
Tyler, drink.
Murder and rebellion58. (44)
Stanley branders, sugar, colonialism and death: The Origin of death day in Mexico, comparative study of society and history2 (April 1997), pp. 276, 286-287. (45)
Bushnell, the Lady of Guadalupe"261.
Bushnell conducted a field trip in San Juan Azigo-
South of village AnOcuiltecacentral Mexico. (46)
Bushnell, the Lady of Guadalupe"264. (47)Ibid. (48)Ibid. (49)
Turismo de la Secretaria de Gobernacion, Gobernacion province, Mexico-
Mecum for visitors (
Special administrative region of Mexico, 1941), pp. 2, 14-15.
During this period, the Mexican government has published many English-speaking guides, including Mexico waiting for you (Mexico, 1940s)
And the itinerary and approximate cost of a car trip to Mexico (Mexico,1940s). (50)
Pilcher, vivian Lo c10! , pp. 1-6 (51)
Los Angeles Times: "How long will it last? March 30, 1915;
Discussed in Mark C.
Anderson, "What can the times do?
Description of cultural backwardness, racial restrictions and moral decline in Mexico by the US media, 1913-
1915, Mexico research/Research Centre, Mexico, 14 (Winter 1998),p. 32. (52)
Anderson, the image of Mexico's cultural backwardness"30-33. (53)
For example, far away
These findings received international attention, see two addresses provided by alfred P.
Maudslay, director of the Royal Institute of Anthropology, published the recent archaeological discoveries in Mexico in the Journal of the Royal Institute of Anthropology of England and Ireland, 43 (June 1913), pp. 10-
18 and Geography Magazine Mexico's Valley 48 (July 1916), pp. 11-23. (54)
Blodin, Manuel Gamio and official Indigenismo, pp. 75-76. (55)
Under the shadow of the state, Mitler, pp. 142-44. (56)
Miller, under the shadow of the country138-52. (57)
"Sickle, snake and soil", page 1. 43-45. (58)
Newman Holmes (ed. )
Diego Rivera: The Exhibition of special (NewYork, 1986), p. 53. (59)
Mexican Renaissance murals89. (60)
Mexican Renaissance murals. 4-5. (61)
The Holmes of, the Diego Rivera of260-67. (62)
Holmes of Diego Rivera56.
It's not clear whether Teotihuacan uses the technology, but Rivera clearly sees it as an old technology and wants to emulate the style for the secretaries. (63)
Jeraldine Kraver, the best laugh: a competitive relationship in the art of Catherine Anne Porter and Diego Rivera, review of the South Atlantic 63, No. 2 (Spring 1998), p. 64. (64)Sarah M.
Lovey, painting in the shadow of the big three, Vaughan and Lewis, Eagles and virgins62. (65)
Liza Blakewell, Frida Caro: Reading for contemporary feminists, Frontier: Journal of Women's Studies3 (1993),p. 170. (66)
Blakewell, "Frida Caro"170;
Charlot during the Mexican Renaissance. 36-37. (67)
New York Times, December 14, 1941XXI2;
New York Times, March 29, 1942XX5. (68)
As provided by the ecological tour of Mexico: "Frida Carlo Crott "(2009)mexico-city-and-
Route/107/including astop, sample pulque while exploring the house of Aztec archaeological site and ancarlo and Rivera. (69)
"Pulque Trade", Kicza197. (70)
Chariot, Mexican Renaissance mural37. (71)
Kraver, "the best laugh"64.
By the way, Kraver believes that the work of the Mexican frescoes and their establishment of the Mexican national culture is a cultural resistance.
She referred to Edward Saeed's "resistance culture theme" and noted that "it is considered that embracing national culture is an aspect of colonial cultural resistance. " (72)
Mural "La Danza de Huichilobos", Diego Rivera (c. 1936)
In Holmes, Diego Rivera. 306.
The image of this mural can also be seen in Skyes, the "Reforma Hotel mural. 34. (73)
Skye, "Reforma Hotel mural"35. (74)Ibid. (75)
Diego Rivera, oil on canvas (e. 1944)in Javier A. Rivera (ed. )
Virtual Diego Rivera network Museum76)
Brueman, wine from ancient Mexico65. (77)
According to Spanish rule, Gibbson, Aztecs's pulque, fino, ordinario and otomite are presented in Gibson. 7-10. (78)
Ramires and others, "the industrialisation of Mexico"554. (79)
Potter, Manor, p. 76.
The Manor is a big Manor. -
Similar to a plantation. (80)
Jean Clemente Orozco quoted in Jean Chariot, "Orozco in New York: according to the letter he gave to the Author", University Art Magazine 191 (Autumn 1959),p. 8. (81)
Jose Clement Orosco, oil painting (c. 1930)
New York Times, February 9, 1930. X12. (82)T.
Philip Terry, Terry's guide to Mexico: A New Standard Guide to the Republic of Mexico with sections on Cuba, the Bahamas and the ocean route to Mexico (Boston, 1923), p. xxviii.
Terry has published a Mexican guide since 1909.
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Chat Online inputting...