investigating technological aspects used in active juice packing. - absorbent meat pads
The new technology in the juice packaging industry is developed according to the needs of customers, in line with the requirements of manufacturing protected foods, the method is softer, while maintaining fresh, delicious, higher storage life and controlled quality.
In addition, changes in distribution (i. e.
Market globalization due to long distance distribution)
Or the way consumers live (
Due to less time spent shopping and cooking fresh food)
Is the most important challenge in the packaging industry.
In recent decades, one of the innovations in the packaging industry has been active and intelligent juice packaging based on the free interaction of juice and its surrounding areas.
It is estimated that the total value of the global juice packaging industry is $2005.
$558 billion is expected to reach 2.
At 649 billion 5].
The main concepts in the active juice packaging industry include ethylene and oxygen absorbers, carbon dioxide reagents, moisture regulators, antimicrobial packaging, as well as absorbers, odor absorbers, and releasers.
The active juice packaging industry allows juice to interact with the environment and play a dynamic role in maintaining food 11].
According to the definition of the ACTIPACK project, the definition of active juicepackaging is as follows :
Active juice packaging creates conditions for increasing food storage time and improving sensory properties and safety of juice while maintaining it [8,9].
Active packaging technology in the juice industry is divided into three categories: * absorber * release system * Other systems based on the physical form of the active system, the absorber and release can be pads, labels, or movies
The mat is placed freely in the head space [1,3].
The label is placed in the cover of the package.
Films or other materials with antibacterial properties consist of two groups: immigrants who actively release active ingredients into the packaging.
Non-immigrant who can effectively prevent bacterial growth without releasing active substances, in which case food should be in direct contact with active substances [E. G. 3]. 2.
Type of absorber: 2. 1.
Oxygen absorber: the presence of oxygen in packaged juices can have a devastating effect 
Initiation or acceleration of oxidation reaction3].
By removing oxygen (
Current and input O2)
Oxidation reaction can be reduced.
Oxygen Absorbers effectively prevent the growth of food, worms or their eggs in grains such as rice, wheat and soybeans .
Despite the use of MAP technology and vacuum packaging technology, these methods still do not effectively remove the remaining oxygen and about 0.
10 to 2 percent of oxygen is left in the pores of the juice.
In addition, these methods do not remove the oxygen input when packaging.
In the presence of this oxygen, the growth of microorganisms continues.
The oxygen absorber can reduce the oxygen content below 0. 01 percent [2,10]
And keep it at this level .
Today, oxygen is absorbed by the following methods: iron oxidation, oxidation of ascorbic acid, oxidation of light-sensitive dyes, oxidation of Cox (e. g.
Glucose antioxidant enzyme
Unsaturated fatty acids (
Such as fatty acid and fatty acid)
And yeast stabilized in solid substrate16].
The most common system used for oxygen absorption is iron oxidation technology .
It is estimated that 1 gram of iron can react with the oxygen of 300cc.
If one-time oxygen content and input oxygen content will be specified, you can select the appropriate adsorption agent to ensure that there is no oxygen during maintenance .
Another oxygen absorber is an enzyme that uses some substrates [to absorb the input of oxygen]16].
A combination of glucose Cox and cat enzymes is used to remove oxygen.
Glucose enzymes produce hydrogen peroxide by transforming glucosedelta-lactone.
As hydrogen peroxide is a significant by-product
Product, catalasecan break it [2,16]
Therefore G is the substrate of glucose: Because this enzyme system is very sensitive to PH changes, moisture activity, salt content, temperature and other factors, it cannot be effectively used in foods containing low moisture .
Ascorbic acid is another oxygen absorber that acts as a reducing agent.
Intermetal compounds for catalytic oxidation reaction, preferably copper16].
Another oxygen absorption technique is to use a light-containing-
Transparently encapsulate sensitive dyes and oxygen receptors in the head space.
Due to the brightness of the light stored in the film with the appropriate wavelength, the excited dye molecules make the oxygen molecules sensitive, so they are single-mode.
This single oxygen reacts with a molecular receptor, so it will be consumed . 2. 2.
Ethylene adsorption agent: Ethylene (C2H4)
Is a plant hormone that accelerates the rate of breathing, leading to the ripening, aging and softening of many fruits, vegetables and flowers .
In addition, ethylene accumulation can cause yellowing of green plants and may lead to abnormalities after harvest of fruits and vegetables [12,16].
There are many ethylene adsorption agents (e. g.
Activated Carbon and zeolite by Alumina, potassium permanganate, metal catalyst)are present .
They are placed on mats or film.
Potassium permanganate (KMnO4)
It is the most effective system for absorbing ethylene, which produces ethylene oxide, acetate and ethanol.
In this process, the color changes from the purple plant and is used to determine the ability to absorb residual ethylene 10].
KMnO4 is not in direct contact with the juice and must be provided inside the mat.
Some products of KMnO4, 4 to 6% are stable on wide neutral substrates such as Pearl Rock, alumina, silica, bentonite and activated carbon.
Other Ethylene absorbers based on the adsorption of ethylene molecules on activated carbon and subsequent cracking 
, Can effectively remove ethylene with various metal catalysts, placed in paper bags and corrugated cardboard .
Other technologies for absorbing ethylene
Minerals dispersed in the packaging film, such as zeolite, clay and Japanese smoke . 2. 3.
CO2 absorber and release: for example, because of its benefits, CO2 is added to the juice packaging to inhibit microbial growth in products such as meat, chicken, cheese and baked goods.
In addition, carbon dioxide is added to fresh products to reduce the amount of breathing and prevent shrinkage due to the vacuum produced by the oxygen absorber [1,16].
Carbon dioxide adsorption agent is specially used for fresh, baked and ground coffee, releasing a large amount of carbon dioxide .
It is useful to remove the oxygen in the package by absorbing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide through the provided mat 
Used to increase the storage life of fresh meat and fish .
This system is based on a mixture of iron carbonate or asa acid and bicarbonate.
When sodium bicarbonate is used together with citric acid, it produces carbon dioxide [2,16].
Products that are important for the size and appearance of the package, are using O2 absorbent and CO2 release agent .
Although carbon dioxide can prevent microorganisms from growing in the atmosphere
Modified packaging, additional carbon dioxide may adversely affect the product or invalidate the effect of preventive action .
Activation pound of Ca (OH)
2 in the presence of sufficient water, react with co2 to produce calcium carbonate .
Another technique in the CO2 adsorption is a container containing CaO and hydration factors, such as silica gel that absorbs water.
This process eliminates the additional carbon dioxide generated during the processing of fruits and vegetables, so that the effect and taste of the carbon dioxide extract, including reducing pH and color changes, will be removed. 3.
Green containers: an important direction in the food packaging industry is sustainable packaging.
Sustainable packaging refers to the design of special mechanisms to produce containers to preserve non-
The Sustainable Packaging Alliance, which consists of over 200 industrial companies, defines the features of sustainable packaging as follows: * Health, Safety, usefulness of consumption during consumption * enjoy efficiency and cost according to market standards * possibility of production, transportation, recycling using recyclable resources * optimizing the use of renewable and recyclable resources * the possibility to produce using clean technology and the best technology * using raw materials, in all possible cases of ending the life of the container, must design the necessary security in some way *, in this way, the use of raw materials and energy in an optimized manner * the possibility of effective recycling and use in all industrial and biological cycles that are compatible with the sustainability of the living environment of the packaging system is determined based on the materials used.
Therefore, the company and the environmental protection organization work together to reduce the adverse impact of the industry on the world's raw materials.
In addition, companies, suppliers and relevant legislative bodies provide guidelines for the sustainable packaging industry, highlighting the types of raw materials and designs.
With regard to land-related issues, there are many laws, including regulations relating to packaging, directives of the European legislative council on packaging waste, assessment and licensing of chemical materials, and BSEN 13432 standards.
One of the green milk containers used by Canton advanced dairy, Ohio.
Due to the efficient design which reduces the delivery cost and the space needed for transportation, this container is completely eco-friendly. 4.
Moisture control: in wet condition
Sensitive fruits, too much water in the packaging will lead to product lumps, biscuits, biscuits and other crisp products to soften, moisture wet
Absorb products like candy.
In contrast, removing so much water from the juice can lead to dehydration or create favorable conditions for oxidation 1,16].
The main purpose of moisture control is to reduce the moisture activity and subsequent growth of mold, yeast and bacteria in juice.
Another application is to remove water from the melting of frozen meat, fish, juice and blood and tissue fluids.
The third reason for moisture control is to prevent steam condensation of fresh horticultural products .
Desiccant such as silica gel, natural clay and calcium oxide for dry juice .
Desiccant is used as a porous liner for plastic boxes and steam interceptors .
In addition to the absorption pads in dry juice packaging, several companies also produce absorption pads and films to control moisture in high-moisture active products such as meat, fish, chicken, fruit and vegetables.
Basically, these adsorption agents are composed of two non-wovenmicro-
Porous plastic layers such as polyethylene or polypropylene, between which there is a super absorbent polymer that can absorb water 500 times more than the weight.
Superabsorbent polymers include polypropylene salt and cmc cellulose (CMC)
Starchcopolymers with strong tendency to absorb water [4,8,14].
Overall, use moisture absorption pads at the bottom of the packaging of fresh meat, fish and chicken to absorb moisture penetration in invisible [tissues]13].
In addition, large films are used to absorb moisture from the melted ice of seafood by air flow .
Absorption of juice flavors by polymer packaging materials may result in loss of flavor and affect its sensory properties .
Often, removing taste can have a devastating effect on the quality of the juice, but it may have a positive application in terms of selective absorption of general or taste .
From a business point of view, the active juice packaging technology is rarely used to selectively remove satisfactory flavors, but there are many opportunities [too]10].
Especially oranges such as navel, due to the lemon ENE released after pressing and pasteurized juice, some of their properties are easy to lose taste.
Grapefruit is a bitter compound found in many citrus juices .
A possible solution to activate packaging aging is the use of a lemon-like absorbent in the packaging materials of orange juice [such as cellulose acetate or aldehyde Paper]13].
To solve this problem, cellulose acetate (CA)
Layers containing fungal sources including [enzymes]alpha]-l-
Hydrolysis of the peel to the grape enzymes of lemon ingen and simeining, neither of these compounds isbitter.
Approved cellulose acetate for contact in the juice industry, including stable naringinase, has been shown to be available for 60% of naringinin grapefruit juice at 7 [hydrolysis] within two weeksdegrees]
C and decrease the absorption of citrate in cellulose acetate membrane .
The two unpleasant smells that can be removed by the active juice packaging industry are Amine, which are decomposed by fish actin and aldehyde from automatic packaging
Oxidation of fat and oil.
The unpleasant smell of volatile amine such as trimethamine associated with fish protein decomposition is alkaline and can be neutralised by various acidic compounds 16].
Commercial items are Bag Films containing organic acids such as iron salt and citrate or ascor acid.
These bags are Amine Oxide, so that they can be absorbed by the polymer film .
Flavor and odor control technology DuPont can remove aldehyde from the head space, such as Hexal and seven aldehyde (OTC)
The sieve with a Aperture of about 5 nm is used as the raw material.
The technology can be used for snacks, grains, dairy products, fish and chicken.
A similar technique for the elimination of aldehyde is the use of a series of synthetic silica-aluminum zeolite, which absorbs odors in super-porous structures.
Powder of this material can be used for packaging materials, especially paperPackage based . 5.
Conclusion: active packaging in the juice industry is one of the exciting emerging technologies in the field of food technology and has many benefits in maintaining a wide range of juice products.
Due to the latest progress in the fields of packaging, materials science, biotechnology and new consumer demand, active packaging technology has awarded new areas of trust .
The purpose is to maintain the sensory quality of the juice and extend the storage time of the juice while maintaining the nutritional value and microbial safety of the juice (Consumer Goods).
Oxygen and moisture absorber is one of the very important subset of commercial active packaging in the juice industry, their market has been growing over the past decade and is expected to continue to grow after 2015 .
The absorber removes unwanted compounds such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, ethylene, additional water and gas flavors.
The active release system releases some ingredients into the package.
Other systems may have different duties such as automatic
Automatic coolingheating .
The use of packaging is becoming more and more popular, and there are many new opportunities in food and non-food
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The development of active food packaging. (1)
Forogh Mohtarami ,(2)
RahelehMohtarami, Mohammed Reza Xiaojie Lade (1a)Ph. D.
Student in Food Science and Technology, University of ulmi, Iran. (2a)
Shahdaab, plant manager, is a producer of Urmia fruit Jouices & centrates in Iran.
Mohamed Reza Xiaojie Lach moheta Lamy;
Study the technical aspects used in the packaging of active juice.
Communication author Forogh Mohtarami, Ph. D.
Student in food science and technology, Urmia University, Iran.