global warming up to a hydrogen economy - carbon dioxide absorbent
"I am most skeptical about any big oil company in terms of alternative fuels," said Exxon's senior vice president . "
President Stephen Simon testified at the Special Committee on Energy Independence and Global warming in Washington, D. C. C.
April 2, 2008.
"The company does not believe that the existing technology in this field is feasible --
The company hopes to "leap" to a new generation of technology.
Some scientists say global warming is caused by humans, leading to rising atmospheric temperatures and melting glaciers and polar ice caps.
It is estimated that the average atmospheric temperature of the Earth has increased by about 0.
8 degrees C in the past 200.
During the same period, the temperature in the Arctic increased by about 1. 5 degree C.
Some scientists say this is because the particles in the snow absorb the sun's radiation.
Dirty snow absorbs solar radiation instead of reflecting solar radiation.
It is estimated that this effect has caused about 19% of global warming, about 0. 15 degree C.
As more snow melts, more particles are exposed, resulting in an exponential increase in the melting rate of ice and snow.
Scientists say that if global warming does not reverse, all the polar ice caps in the world could melt in the next 500, and sea levels could rise by 90 metres.
Many countries in the Caribbean and the states off the eastern coast of the United States, as well as Florida and Luis Anna on the east coast of Canada, South Vietnam and Bangladesh, and most of the world's cities currently on the ocean coast may be underwater.
All the chemical reaction mechanisms that occur in the upper atmosphere of the Earth are not clear.
It is well known that gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous nitrogen and fluorine chloride absorb infrared rays.
The absorption of infrared rays produces heat, which scientists say is responsible for global warming.
Water vapor in the upper atmosphere accounts for about 36% of the sun's heat absorption, followed by 9% of carbon dioxide.
As more heat is generated, more water evaporates from the body of water and balances in the atmosphere.
Maybe that's why the Great Lakes are down.
This is also why the land is getting dry, there are fewer crops harvested, and more people are starving.
Note: sulfur dioxide forms an aerosol and does not absorb infrared radiation.
It will scatter light and produce the opposite effect of global warming.
It is widely believed that the carbon dioxide produced by human beings is the main cause of global warming.
Over the past 31% years, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere has increased by 200.
In a recent study of rainwater composition, scientists found that the concentration of carbonated ions in dissolved carbon dioxide was as high as 355 ppm, and the concentration of nitric acid ions in dissolved nitric acid was 0.
01 ppm and sulfuric acid ion concentration 0. 01 ppm.
This seems to contradict the scientific theory that carbon dioxide continues for hundreds of years in the upper atmosphere and contributes to global warming.
When the carbonated rain falls on Earth, it dissolves calcium and eventually enters the lake and ocean.
Most organisms need calcium to form shells and bones. The by-
The product of this reaction is carbon dioxide and water.
To reduce the impact of global warming, some scientists say it is necessary to reduce carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere.
However, simply collecting carbon dioxide from power plants and car exhaust piles and pumping it into the ground or ocean is not a long-term solution.
In this way, it is treated without first supplementing the oxygen used to produce carbon dioxide.
Without planting the same number of trees, the oxygen concentration in the Earth's atmosphere may eventually be reduced to the point of choking all living things on Earth.
Methane also accumulates in the upper atmosphere and absorbs infrared light.
In contrast, because of its molecular size, it absorbs 21 times more infrared radiation than carbon dioxide.
The residence time of methane in the upper atmosphere is about 12 years, eventually absorbing enough infrared radiation to react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.
71% of methane in the atmosphere is produced directly or indirectly by people.
Atmospheric concentrations have increased by 100% in the past 200 years.
Due to these facts, some scientists believe that methane indirectly contributes to 50% of global warming.
Interestingly, nitrous nitrogen (
Combustion of hydrocarbons discharged through power plants and vehicle tailpipes is naturally produced)
The reaction in the upper atmosphere produces ozone.
The atmospheric ozone layer that protects humans from skin cancer and eye damage absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
The question remains why the ozone layer is drying up.
Since the advent of space satellites, scientists have recorded an increase of 0.
Since the 05% century, the solar activity has been 1970 per decade, which in turn leads to global warming.
Before the launch of the satellite, tree rings were used to determine the world temperature trend.
The inspection of tree rings indicates that the Earth's temperature has risen by about 0.
6 degrees C since 1800 s.
There seem to be many reasons for global warming.
It seems that the special interest group has succeeded in lobbying to persuade the public and governments at all levels of the world that measures must be taken to reverse global warming, in particular reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
Visionary countries will benefit from the development of new technologies that eliminate sources of carbon dioxide emissions while replacing foreign oil energy with hydrogen.
These changes will not happen overnight.
Eliminate the impact of consumer prices, keep more
National cash flow, minimizing disruption to existing fuel supplies and infrastructure, and the hydrogen economy may be staged over time.
The four main steps in the process may be:)
Eliminate carbon dioxide.
Complex oil products do not change the existing industrial and domestic energy needs, but capture and store carbon dioxide. b)
As oil supplies dry up, switching industrial and domestic energy demand from complex oil products could be replaced by solar, nuclear, wind turbines and methane, propane and hydrogen sources for a wide range of fuel cells used for power generation, heating and vehicle transportation. c)
A shift to a hydrogen society.
With the saturation of solar panels and wind turbines and the depletion of uranium supplies, hydrogen will fill new areas of growth in industrial and household energy demand. d)
Leading Position in hydrogen technology
The electrolysis of water is energy intensive.
A new generation of catalysts can be developed to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen.
The first country to develop this technology may "surpass" today's and near future technologies for generations.
The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved by the chemical reaction of carbon dioxide to generate oxygen and carbon.
This includes products that are catalytic to reduce combustion of hydrocarbons
After collecting and shipping to the central processing location, place or remote.
In the short term, morenationals (
For example, Suncor (NYSE:SU)and Enbridge (NYSE:ENB))
The cost of capturing, transporting and handling CO2 may be passed on to consumers.
Chemical reduction of carbon dioxide [CDCR]
In motor vehicles, a new generation of catalysts, such as ordinary magnets, need to be installed in existing exhaust systems to generate oxygen and carbon.
The use of carbon dioxide emitted from power plants can be catalytic to produce carbon black and oxygen economically.
At present, carbon black is used to manufacture rubber products such as tires and printer toner, or to be added to agricultural soil as an important nutrient to promote plant growth and replace existing plant combustion methods, thereby reducing the generation of atmospheric particulate matter. Producers (
Such as Cabot Carbon (NYSE:CB))
At present, the extraction of carbon black from oil can benefit from this cheap source of carbon dioxide raw materials by modifying existing processes.
The oxygen produced by this process can be used for the production of existing bottled oxygen for welding and medical purposes or for the production of steel (
American steel, for example (NYSE:X)).
Sabatier Reactor using catalysts such as alumina-
A joint ammonia compound that converts water and carbon dioxide into methane. Multi-
Nationals will be required to purchase ru from mining companies (
For example, platinum (OTCPK:AGPPF)
And the white gold of the Impala (OTCQX:IMPUY))
Producing these new catalysts
In order to eliminate the phenomenon of natural digestion of hydrocarbon materials into methane and carbon dioxide, legislation may one day soon require all municipalities and land filling operators (
Waste Management (WMI))
Collect, recycle and/or convert all carbon materials and hydrocarbons into hydrogen, methane, intermediate hydrocarbons and carbon black.
Refineries, power plants, manufacturers, and hydrogen fuel distribution companies may also be required by legislation to use these raw material sources as fuel.
In the long run, collecting and reacting carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and carbon is ineffective and requires infrastructure to create more sources of carbon dioxide.
As hydrocarbons become more difficult to find and production costs become higher and higher, electricity from nuclear reactors, solar panels, wind turbines, fuel cells and batteries may eventually become affordable and replace oil, coal-based liquids, coal gasification, LPGs and natural gas are the sources of energy.
According to the current thinking, to fully develop nuclear energy, solar energy, wind turbines, methane/propane fuel cells and battery energy, hydrogen technology must be fully developed.
To eliminate the threat of global warming, a series of nuclear power plants are being planned and built.
Uranium miners (
For example, Cameco (NYSE:CCJ), Paladin (OTCPK:PALAF), Uranium One (OTC:SXRZF))
Nuclear power will benefit from new interests as users are currently trying to lock in long-term supply contracts.
Producers of nuclear energy (
For example, Cameco, TransCanada pipeline)
Also benefit from it.
In addition, silicon producers and solar panel manufacturers currently benefit from energy diversity (
For example, Timminco (OTC:TIMNF)
Solar energy Canada (NASDAQ:CSIQ)).
The emerging group currently benefiting from energy diversity is a wind turbine manufacturer (
For example, General Electric (NYSE:GE), Games Corp (OTCPK:GCTAF)and Vestas (OTCPK:VWSYF))
Wind farm operators (
Western Wind Energy (OTC:WNDEF)
CrestStreet Power (CEPWF. PK)).
Hydrogen fuel cars may not show up overnight.
In the short term, the fuel source of the car's fuel cell may be a combination of methane and propane prior to hydrogen precipitation.
As an By-product production Carbon Black
Catalytic reaction products of carbon dioxide waste gas may be considered a problem.
Currently, various rare earth elements, including y, sm, gd and la, are being developed and manufactured.
At present, the la used in hydrogen fuel cells and NiMH batteries may become the norm. Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB)motors (
(Including a small amount of rare earth)
At present, the use of hybrid electric vehicles may also become the norm. Miners (
Great Western Mineral (Avalon)OTC:GWMGF), MolyCorp (MLYFF. PK), (Kings Bay (OTC:KBGCF))
At present, the development and production of these rare earth elements may benefit one day or be acquired by today's auto companies. nationals (
For example, the Ford New York Stock Exchange (NYSE:F)
General Motors (NYSE:GM), Daimler-Chrysler (DCX), Toyota (NYSE:TM)).
In the short term, the reorganization of natural gas may lead to large-scale hydrogen production.
High cost of final Exploration Company (
For example, Diamond Ensco International (NYSE:ESV), Trans Ocean (NYSE:RIG), Offshore (NYSE:DO))
New production of natural gas producers (
Exxon Moby, Talisman, for example)
Deep-sea underwater and deep-sea land resources from remote parts of the world may become uneconomical.
The hydrogen infrastructure may look quite different from today's, but the power plants behind those buildings that look familiar may have changed.
The right of way for hydropower lines and pipelines may remain more or less the same.
Existing natural gas transmission system infrastructure (
For example, TransCanada pipeline, Enbridge)
The hydrogen-resistant pipeline may carry hydrogen, not natural gas and oil.
Fuel cells may turn hydrogen into electricity instead of gas and oil stoves to heat our homes.
The gasification of coal can be used almost simultaneously to produce hydrogen.
Coal producers (example, ARCH (NYSE:ACI), Peabody (NYSE:BTU), Fording)
Due to the low cost of coal, it is possible to eventually surpass natural gas producers as sources of hydrogen. Multi-nationals (
For example, GE, Sasol (NYSE:SSL))
Coal gasification and natural gas (or Syn Gas)
Steam reforming technology is likely to be the first commercial manufacturer of hydrogen equipment.
If these industries fail to manufacture equipment that economically eliminates carbon dioxide production, some of them may not survive in the end.
Existing owners of natural gas and coal-fired power plants (
For example, Peabody, TransAlta (TPERF. PK)
CO2 can be eliminated through legislation
Products, may be forced out of business if technology is not available or economical.
Microwave Technology (
For example, global research (OTC:GBRC), Chevron (NYSE:CVX))
It may become a means of producing hydrogen in the future.
It may replace processes that produce hydrogen but cannot eliminate carbon dioxide in the following ways
Economic or legal products.
One day, microwave technology may be used to convert depleted oil wells, methane, tires, plastics, oil sands, crude oil, wood chips and most of the carbon hydrocarbons into hydrogen and carbon black. Multi-nationals (
Canadian oil company Suncor)
At present, processing oil sands with traditional methods may one day be regulated by legislation to use non-carbon dioxide production processes, such as microwave technology, or face extinction.
One day, existing natural gas and coal-fired power plants that produce electricity may be replaced by multiple large fuel cell libraries. Manufacturers (
Siemens (SI), ABB (NYSE:ABB), GE)
The combination of HVAC and high voltage DC grids could one day benefit as they connect hardware to existing and new infrastructure.
Due to easier control of the power flow, lower losses, higher transmission capacity and lower costs from fewer lines, high-voltage DC may replace applications that require long transmission lines.
DC is required to connect the fuel cell source to the grid-
DC converters for some manufacturers (
For example, American Semiconductor (NASDAQ:AMSC))
Used to first raise the voltage to the correct level and convert the DC power supply to the AC power supply by the inverter to connect to the power grid.
From manufacturing technology licenses in the Middle East, Asian interests and other countries, development funds can be provided for new hydrogen technology and elemental compound building block nanometerstechnology.
Of all energy sources, hydrogen may be the cleanest, most self-produced, most abundant, and most pollution-free.
It has been shown that a combination of hydrogen fuel cells and electric batteries can power the vehicle.
Home and business may be the main center for charging car batteries and fueling individual vehicles.
New hydrogen fuel distribution company (
For example, Air Products (NYSE:AIR))
Could replace the current number. nationals (
For example, Suncor, ExxonMobile, a Canadian oil company).
The infrastructure of the highway service center may seem the same, but it has been modified to include battery charging and hydrogen fuel distribution facilities. Re-Charge and recharge
Refueling a highway vehicle may not be a problem.
The time spent may not be more than the time spent on a leisurely meal.
Manufacturers of water electrolysis equipment can also produce hydrogen (
For example, distributed energy (DESC-OLD)).
Reverse osmosis technology equipment should be used to purify non-drinking water and seawater sources first (
H 2 O innovation of United Water Company (NASDAQ:CWCO)).
The source of electricity produced by electrolysis and hydrogen may be produced by equipment manufactured by fuel cell manufacturers (
For example, Ballard Power (NASDAQ:BLDP)).
The electrolysis of water extracted from sea water may bring other benefits. Ocean water (
San Francisco, California, for example)
It is usually cold and can be used for heat exchange media in commercial buildings.
Seawater can return to the sea cleanly where it can be mixed and allow recovery to the original salinity after partial separation, which is considered eco-friendly.
Some of the water can be used for agricultural production in semi-arid areas. arid areas (US southwest).
Due to the large amount of energy required, water electrolysis technology may eventually be replaced by a new generation of catalysts used to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen.
Researchers at Purdue University are currently working on an aluminum
An alloy-rich catalyst consisting of 5% gallium, indium, and tin converts water into hydrogen and oxygen.
In North America, the current mining (
For example, Geodex Minerals (OTC:GXMLF))
I don't know which one is more.
The state may obtain these minerals from the water for future hydrogen production.
I don't know which one is more important.
National Corporation (
Competition, competition (NYSE:MRO))
It will fund and leverage breakthroughs in hydrogen technology.
Conclusion: high profits, availability of resources, no competitive energy and a large amount of capital investment do not appear to have much incentive
State oil companies or users are turning to Hydrogen Energy Technologies.
The question is, "which is more
Will the nation lead the "Leap" to the next generation of hydrogen technology, distribution and hybrid car manufacturing?
Will it be GE?
TransCanada pipeline? Toyota?
Which country will ban carbon dioxide emissions and force more
National investment in hydrogen technology?
Disclosure: I have a stake in Suncor, Great Western Minerals, General Electric, Cameco, Denison mining and BFI Canada.