foreign body aspiration: clinical utility of flexible bronchoscopy - materials that absorb water

by:Demi     2019-08-22
foreign body aspiration: clinical utility of flexible bronchoscopy  -  materials that absorb water
Foreign body attraction is a global health problem that often leads to life-threatening complications.
Foreign body wishes of more than 2 out of 3 occur in children under 3 years of age.
Organic materials such as nuts, seeds and bones are most often inhaled.
The clinical presentation is extensive and there are usually no reliable witnesses to provide a clinical medical history, especially in children.
Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a high suspicion index for diagnosis.
In this case, there is no imaging method that is diagnostic, and it is often necessary for diagnosis and treatment.
In adults, foreign bodies can be tried to be removed during diagnostic examination with fiber optic fiber support mirror under local anesthesia, which may help to avoid any further invasive surgery and bring more complications
When the diagnosis is delayed, complications of the retained foreign body, such as unsubsided pneumonia, pulmonary abscess, recurrent cough blood and branch expansion, may require surgical resection.
However, some late complications may be completely resolved after the foreign body is taken out, so, in the appropriate case, a flexible fiber support mirror should always be considered before surgery.
Pathogenesfba occurs frequently among young children.
The age distribution was double peak, and the second peak appeared around the age of 10.
Young groups are more vulnerable due to insufficient teeth and immature swallowing coordination.
Also, in children of this age, introducing objects into their mouths is the way they explore the world.
In adults, FBA is mainly caused by the failure of airway protection mechanisms, such as alcoholism, poor dental column, use of calming or hypnotic drugs, aging, mental retardation, primary nervous system diseases with impaired swallowing or mental state, trauma of loss of consciousness, seizures and general anesthesia.
3 fewer unexpected wishes for any material (
Food parts, small toy parts, etc)
In all age groups, mouth appears when laughing, crying or sneezing.
In adults, aspiration foreign bodies are more likely to block the right trachea system.
However, no dominant right-hand position of foreign matter was found in children, as the left main trachea is closer to the size of the right main trachea;
In addition, the left main trachea does not branch at the same sharp angle as the adult.
The aspirated object of 2 out of 5 stays in the main stem bron pool instead of the distal bron pool.
8, 9 when a foreign body is sucked into the distal trachea system without causing an acute obstruction, it may remain silent for some time depending on its nature.
Organic substances can cause more severe mucosal inflammation and form granular tissue in a few hours.
In addition, objects such as beans, seeds and corn can absorb moisture, and some of the obstacles can become complete obstacles with subsequent expansion.
However, it is well known that grass flowers also migrate to a distance, creating a chronic inflammation that usually requires the removal of the lungs.
On the other hand, patients who breathe in a small amount of inorganic substances usually maintain asymptomatic for a longer period of time, unless the distal airway is completely blocked.
10 The severity of the symptoms during the appearance of inhalation foreign bodies may vary depending on the impact site and the nature of the foreign body.
Although this is not common, blocking the throat with large objects that breathe in can lead to acute and dramatic performance, and short suffocation and suffocation can be related to hoarseness, hearing loss, and hairiness.
For these cases, it is recommended to use the Heimlich operation.
If the foreign body enters the lower sound door or the trachea area through the vocal cords, it may be noted that the aspirational asthma is accompanied by a burst of cough.
However, further moving foreign bodies into the trachea can lead to the resolution of these symptoms and may start a period of relative asymptomatic.
Cough, gasping, and decreased breathing tone are the most common acute symptoms of FBA, a new symptom that, especially in children, should always suggest that there may be foreign bodies.
It is reported that about 50% of FBA patients did not contribute to history, and 20% of children received drug treatment for other diseases for more than a month before diagnosis.
13-15 symptoms of prolonged inhalation of foreign bodies, repeated cough of blood, and consistent with recurrent bronchitis, pneumonia, and branch expansion, such as chronic productive/unproductive cough and breathing, may exist.
6, 16, 17 boxes 1: a case of a long-preserved foreign body in the trachea airway reported that a previously healthy 15-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a history of repeated cough.
He has a history of losing weight. 5 kg)
Last month.
Three months before his admission, a private doctor gave him several courses of antibiotics, including anti-tuberculosis drugs.
However, the frequency of deterioration has increased without any radiation improvement.
His vital signs at the time of admission were as follows: temperature 38 °c;
Blood pressure, 110/70 Hg;
Heart rate, 98 times/minute;
Frequency of breathing, 22 breaths/minutes.
Physical examination found local breathing and course cracks at the bottom of the right lung.
He does not have a finger club and does not have eye-catching checks on other systems.
Blood cell count and chemical analysis were normal, according to the Hematology survey.
Chest angiography shows the enlargement of the right lung gate, the volume of the right half chest is reduced, non-
Right heart boundary uniform opaque (fig 1).
The computed tomography of the lungs shows right oblique fissure exhaustion, corresponding to the middle lung failure, fine trachea expansion, and the thickness of the airway around the right upper and lower leaves and consolidation of the lung segments (fig 2).
The lung activity test showed mild obstruction (
The forced breath in one second is 84% of the forecast)
There was no obvious reversible after inhalation of 200 mu g Sha Chuanning.
His sputum is pustular and has no smell.
Sputum Gram staining smear showed a large number of multi-Nuclear white blood cells, with a variety of gram-negative rods and gram-positive bacteria.
Culture of influenza bacteria, pneumonia and mixed oral flora by sputum.
The protein derivatives purified by Mantoux test were 15mm.
The infection of mycobacteria in sputum was negative.
Serum immunoglobulin, including IgE, and sweat tests performed with piloka are normal.
According to the patient's medical history, physical examination and radiation features, foreign bodies suspected to be retained are the cause of repeated infection and branch expansion.
The subsequent fiber optic fiber support mirror shows foreign body in the trachea (0. 5 × 0.
5x1 cm, cylindrical plastic pen cap)
Obstruction of the right middle trachea and successful resection during the same course of treatment.
The clinical situation of the patient improved within 10 days, and 1 month after the foreign body was removed, compared with chest angiography (fig 3)
And computed tomography (fig 4)
It shows the full resolution of the anterior mid-lobe and the expansion of the right lung gate, and also the significant resolution of the fine trachea expansion.
Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpoint figure 1 showing right lung door enlargement, right half chest volume reduction and non-
The right center boundary is uniform and opaque.
Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 2, chest computed tomography, showing the disappearance of the right oblique crack corresponding to the middle lung failure, fine trachea expansion of the upper and lower leaves on the right side as well as thickness around the airway and consolidation of solar terms.
Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 3, showing the full resolution of the previous mid-lobe, and the expansion of the right lung gate.
Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 4, chest-controlled computed tomography, showing the full resolution of the previous mid-lobe pulmonary insufficiency and pulmonary consolidation, as well as a significant regression of the expansion of the right pulmonary fine trachea.
In the physical examination of FBA cases, the most common findings included rapid breathing sounds, panting sounds, decreased breathing sounds on one or both sides, local breathing and/or crackling sounds, and sometimes included
Unusual Manifestations include pneum, subcutaneous edema, and/or chest cavity in the middle.
In the differential diagnosis, the most common diagnosis was airway obron inflammation, asthma, recurrent pneumonia, and tuberculosis.
13. 18 kinds of foreign bodies can be divided into two categories: organic foreign bodies and inorganic foreign bodies.
Most of the foreign bodies inhaled are organic substances, such as nuts and seeds of children, food and bones of adults.
The most common inorganic inhalation in children is small parts of school equipment such as beads, coins, pins, small parts of various toys, and pen caps.
In adults, dental prosthesis, pills and tops extracted from beverage cans are some reported inorganic substances extracted from the airway.
Inhalation pills are also common in all age groups and can cause severe airway inflammation.
The lifestyle of adults may tend to be an unusual desire.
For example, it is reported that Muslim women pin the headscarf between their lips when wearing a headscarf.
Frame 21 2: epidemiology and epidemiology sfba in children under 4 years of age in the United States accounted for 7% of all accidental deaths.
FBA is most common among toddlers;
However, there is a twin peak age distribution with a second peak around the age of 10.
In infants, they are vulnerable to injuries due to lack of adequate dental column and immature swallowing coordination.
Prevention of children and toddlers is the most important.
In adults, FBA is mainly caused by the failure of airway protection mechanisms, such as alcoholism, poor dental column, use of calming or hypnotic drugs, aging, mental retardation, primary nervous system diseases with impaired swallowing or mental state, trauma of loss of consciousness, seizures and general anesthesia.
In adults, the right trachea system is more likely to be blocked by aspiration foreign bodies;
However, no advantage on the right side was found in children.
Objects of 2 out of 3 stay in the main stem bron pool instead of the far end bron pool.
Organic substances can cause more severe mucosal inflammation and form granular tissue in a few hours.
Objects such as beans, seeds and corn can absorb moisture, and then some of the swollen obstacles can become complete obstacles.
Although most foreign bodies are radioactive, it is a standard radiation work
In the case of suspicion of FBA, up should be done, including the anterior and posterior chest and lateral chest, as well as the lateral side of the neck soft tissue.
One should remember that chest X-rays may be normal within the first 24 hours. The initial radiology findings showed either unilateral or segmented overinflation, which could become significantly better, whether it was a breath X-ray or a lung fluorescence mirror examination.
22 obstrutive emphysema, especially when associated with lower respiratory tone on the affected side, has a very high positive predictive value.
In addition, the presence of radiology findings, including lung immobility, lung infiltration, and longitudinal compartment displacement, may suggest FBA.
It is reported that 22 other imaging tests have little further help.
Typically, a flexible/Rigid fiber support mirror is required to diagnose the FBA.
5-9, 13 frame 3: the severity of symptoms caused by inhalation of foreign bodies may vary depending on the location of the impact.
Obstruction of throat
Suffocation and suffocation may be related to hoarseness, loss of voice and cyan, and sudden death may occur.
Trachea occlusion
It may be noted that inhalation asthma is accompanied by a burst of cough.
Obstruction in the bronchi-
The most common clinical manifestations were cough, asthma, large sputum, difficulty breathing, chest pain, and decreased respiratory tone.
Despite medical treatment, the disease will return.
Box 4: diagnostic assessment although 90% of foreign bodies are radioactive, this is a standard radiation work
The front and back chest and chest lateral films, as well as the neck soft tissue lateral films, were included.
Chest X-rays for the first 24 hours may be normal.
Preliminary radiological findings of overinflation on one side or segment can be better seen in breath-ray photos.
The presence of pulmonary insufficiency, air retention, lung infiltration, and longitudinal displacement on chest X-rays may suggest FBA.
Other imaging tests have little further help.
Flexible/Rigid fiber support mirrors are often required to determine the diagnosis.
At present, foreign body removal usually depends on the technology of fiber support mirror.
In 1897, the first report was published to remove foreign bodies with a hard fiber mirror, and in 1936, Chevalier Jackson reported that the foreign body in the trachea was successfully removed with his new fiber mirror system.
23,24 Ikeda developed the flexible fiber optic support mirror in 1968, and 1970 s published a preliminary report on the removal of foreign objects from the flexible fiber support mirror.
5, 25, 26 subsequently, animal studies showed that various foreign bodies were removed from the animal's trachea system using a newly developed clamp through a fiber endoscope.
27 since then, some studies have been published on the removal of foreign objects with flexible fiber support mirrors (table 1).
3, 28-32 View this table: Although the optical technology has made progress, check the inline View pop-up table 1 case of a series of fiber optical foreign objects removal, appropriate training and experience are essential to optimize the results and minimize the risk of complications from removal of foreign bodies in the trachea and airway through a fiber-optic mirror.
While hard fiber support mirrors are still considered the safest instrument in most pediatric centers, there is no doubt that fiber support mirrors are the preferred tool for the initial diagnosis of foreign bodies in adult patients.
2,19, 32 Currently, there are flexible fiber support mirrors of different sizes in different age groups.
There are 4 slim mirrors.
Outer diameter 9mm, diameter 2.
Patients over the age of 12 use a working channel with a diameter of 2mm.
There are 3 fiber endoscopes though. 5 mm or 2.
1. Outside Diameter 7mm.
For young patients, a 2mm diameter working channel is available, and in very young patients it is a very difficult procedure to use a flexible Fibroscope under local anesthesia.
In this case, a rigorous fiber-optic examination under general anesthesia may be the safest method.
The use of short-acting agents, such as propol for general anesthesia, may increase safety by allowing jet ventilation or manual assisted autonomous ventilation due to the fact that surgery rarely exceeds 10 minutes.
In fact, rigid endoscopes provide more access to the lower airway of the acoustic door, ensuring the correct oxygen filling and easy passage of the telescope and grasping pliers when taking out large foreign bodies.
In addition, in the event of a large amount of bleeding, a rigid fiber support mirror allows very effective airway aspiration.
5 However, in adult patients, there are many advantages in the initial diagnosis of foreign matter in flexible fiber support mirror than rigid fiber support mirror.
First of all, in the hands of experienced people, flexible fiber-optic mirrors are a relatively easy and safe procedure.
Second, the use of flexible endoscopy to observe the airway under local anesthesia can try to remove foreign bodies and avoid increased costs, risks, and the incidence of secondary invasive surgery, such as hard fiber endoscopy under general anesthesia.
Third, in the case of distal wedge foreign matter, in patients with mechanical ventilation, or in the case of a fracture of the spine, chin or skull, the Fibroscope is superior to the rigid endoscope, preventing the operation of the rigid endoscope.
30 when careful case selection is carried out, in the hands of experienced, the success rate of removing foreign objects with flexible fiber support mirrors can be as high as 100%.
5,33 when serious complications occur due to long retention of foreign bodies, another important advantage of the fiber optic fiber support mirror applies.
Delayed complications associated with residual foreign matter included non-regression pneumonia, lung abscess, repeated cough blood, lung biopsy, obstrutive emphysema, and branch expansion.
6, 34 it is essential to consider FBA in the differential diagnosis of the above-mentioned pathology, because removal of foreign bodies through a flexible fiber support mirror can provide complete resolution without the need for more invasive surgery.
34, 35 branch expansion, as in our case, is one of the most important complications of foreign bodies retained for a long time, and in the case of repeated infection, surgical resection may be required.
After aspiration of unknown foreign bodies, expansion may develop for many years.
This post-blocking expansion is a local rather than a diffusion process.
Prior to chronic inflammation and subsequent branch expansion, there were 35 obstrucive emphysema, pulmonary insufficiency, and infection.
Within two to eight weeks after the introduction of sterile foreign matter into the trachea tree, branch expansion occurs in animals.
36. it is not clear the exact duration required to develop support after human obstruction.
While medical care is sufficient in most cases, surgery is the only way to treat branch expansion.
However, it has been reported in the literature that after extraction of long-preserved foreign bodies, the expansion, scar change, or regression of the lung Imura caused by FBA.
Ernst and Mahmud, as well as subsequent Mansour et al, describe similar cases, and because of the FBA, a complete solution is provided by removing foreign bodies, a branch expansion has emerged.
35, 37 Pogorzelski and Zebrak describe a 13-year-old girl who suffers from prolonged recurrent pneumonia, mainly due to residual foreign bodies in the middle trachea.
34. The author reports that the scar was found to have narrowed the middle trachea after a fiber-optic examination, and the scar disappeared after the foreign body was removed.
Khatibi et al reported a case of mid-lobe syndrome caused by FBA, in which the removal of foreign bodies significantly improved the patient's condition.
38 boxes 5: the foreign body removal mirror is the preferred tool for further evaluation of suspicious foreign bodies.
In most pediatric centers, strict fiber-optic mirrors are still considered the safest instrument.
In adults, the flexible fiber support mirror is superior to the rigid fiber support mirror, and should be the preferred instrument for the diagnosis and removal of airway foreign matter when appropriate.
Appropriate training and experience are essential to optimize the outcome of the procedure for the removal of foreign bodies from the trachea airway and minimize the risk of complications.
Box 6: the delayed complications and clinical utility of flexible airway obstruction, pulmonary insufficiency and infection due to retained airway foreign bodies preceded the development of chronic inflammation and branch expansion.
Branch expansion is one of the most important complications of retaining foreign bodies for a long time, and in the case of repeated infection, surgical resection may be required.
This post-blocking expansion is a local rather than a diffusion process.
After aspiration of unknown foreign bodies, expansion may develop for many years.
While surgery is the only way to treat branch expansion, it has been reported in the literature that FBA can cause branch expansion and/or branch expansion after extraction of long-preserved foreign bodies.
Therefore, in the case of local expansion or non-regression of pneumonia, flexible colonoscopy should always be considered to prevent unnecessary surgery in patients.
Conclusion fba is the most common problem for children under 3 years of age.
In adult patients, fibrocolonoscopy is a safe preliminary diagnostic procedure for foreign bodies, avoiding unnecessary general anesthesia and reducing hospital costs.
In the hands of experienced, the success rate of removing foreign objects with flexible fiber support mirrors can be as high as 100%.
Even if it is only to locate foreign objects in the initial fiber optic fiber support mirror, it is allowed that the subsequent Rigid fiber support mirror lasts less and has fewer complications.
FBA should always be considered as the cause of recurrent lung infection or cough blood, lung abscess, mid-lobe syndrome, fiber changes such as scar formation, and branch expansion. All of this may require surgical removal.
Removal of foreign bodies in this case can achieve resolution of substantial or airway pathology and prevent unnecessary surgery.
Therefore, before surgery, in this case, a fiber colonoscopy should always be considered. Questions (
Answer at the end of the paper)
Which age group is most vulnerable to foreign matter attraction?
What a standard radiation job it is.
Should up be included to diagnose suspicious foreign bodies?
What is the preferred procedure for diagnosing aspirated foreign bodies?
In the diagnosis of air-feeding foreign bodies, What advantages does flexible fiber support mirror have than rigid fiber support mirror?
What are the late complications of retaining foreign bodies?
About 75% to 85% of all FBI cases occur in children under the age of 15;
Most of them, however, are under 3 years old.
Failure of airway protection mechanisms is the most common cause of FBAs in adults, which occurs primarily during the sixth or seventh decade of life.
A standard radiation work
In cases where FBA is suspected, the up should include a front, back, and side chest film, as well as a side soft tissue neck X-ray.
It should also be borne in mind that chest X-rays may be normal within the first 24 hours, with initial radiology findings showing excessive inflation on one side or segment, it can be seen more clearly in breath-ray photos or lung fluorescence microscopy.
Observation of airway trees with flexible/Rigid fiber support mirrors is the preferred method for the diagnosis of FBA.
Using a flexible endoscope to observe the airway under local anesthesia, it is possible to try to remove foreign bodies in order to avoid the additional cost, risk and incidence of the second type of surgery: hard mirror examination under general anesthesia.
In addition, in the case of distal wedge foreign bodies, in patients with mechanical ventilation, or in the case of fractures of the spine, chin or skull, the Fibroscope is superior to rigid colonoscopy, which prevents rigidity
Unsubsided pneumonia, pulmonary abscess, recurrent cough, pulmonary fibrosis, obstrutive emphysema, middle-lobe syndrome, and branch expansion are late complications of foreign bodies in the retained trachea airway reported.
National Security Council. Accident facts.
Chicago: National Security Council News, 1980: 7.
Veyckemans F, Francis, etc.
Foreign body in the trachea: performance and management of children and adults. Chest1999; 115:1357–62.
The road to OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science Chen, Lai chlorine, Cai TT, etc.
Foreign bodies enter the lower airway in Chinese adults. Chest1997; 112:129–33.
PC of OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science dommanto, Tuggle DW, Tunell wepossible powder.
Appropriate negative fiber support rate in suspicious foreign body aspiration. Am J Surg1989; 158:622–4.
The road to OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science, Martinot.
Foreign bodies are removed from adults and children.
In: Bollinger CT, ed.
Interventional fiber support mirror
Basel: culger, 2000: 96-107.
Alimmaayan C Avanta on one, Elpeleg, etc.
Complications after aspiration of oat head.
Pediatr Pulmonol1993; 15:52–4.
PS of OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science limlemberg, daloh DH, Hollinger Labor Department.
Respiratory foreign bodies in older children and adolescents.
Ann Otto Lo rhino throat105:267–71.
OpenUrlPubMedWeb of science.
The removal of foreign body in children by fiber support mirror.
Am J. Child1982 deposit insurance program; 136:924–7.
Delibegovic-brickf
Dedic, Hajdarovic D.
Removal of foreign bodies from children in Bosnia and herzigoniva by a fiber-optic lens: Experience of 230 patients.
Pediatric Department of Otolaryngology; 28:193–6.
OpenUrl Marie Freiman Ma, a journalist recently.
In asymptomatic children, the unique manifestation of foreign body in the trachea.
Ann Otto Lo rhino throat110:495–7.
OpenUrlAbstract/free full Text ↵ Heimlich HJ. A life-
Saving strategies to prevent foodchoking. JAMA1975; 234:398–401.
B of OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science paper, friderberg. Aerodigestive-
Foreign bodies in children: traps in management.
J Otolarngol1994; 23:102–8.
OpenUrlPubMedWeb friedman EM of science.
Foreign body in trachea.
Am2000 of North Olympic Tulin guo le company; 33:179–85.
The height of OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb sciencemir, Tekant Gram, Besik C, etc.
Foreign body in trachea and airway removed by fiber support mirror: the value of the patient's medical history.
Pediatric practice; 17:85–7.
Science's openurlcrosspubmedweb cohen SR, Lewis FH.
Emergency management of caustic soda.
Emerg Med Clin North Am1984; 2:77–86.
A. Closset M. Marquette CH.
Indications for flexible and rigid fiber support mirrors for children with suspicious foreign body aspiration.
I Am J. Respir Crit Care from Med1997; 155:1676–9.
I, duo an R, Demircin M and others from OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science.
Removal of foreign body in children's airway: a retrospective analysis of 822 cases
Cardiac surgery; 39:95–8.
F, barrisb, Shahin AA, etc. of OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science GmbH Kalyoncu.
Tuberculosis in trachea
Reports of 15 cases
J1989 American Medical Society; 15:395–6.
OpenUrl promotion Salcedo.
Foreign body suction
Anesthesiol Clin North Am1998; 16:885–92.
Dr. Johnson, Dr. Yew
The desire of Nosan Tielin.
M. J. medg. Med1994; 12:337–8.
OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science, Rice of Kaptanoglu, Dogan K, Onen A, etc.
The desire of the headscarf: the potential of young Islamic girls.
Children of otolaryngology; 48:131–5.
Scientific openurlcross pubpubmedweb mu LC, Sun DQ, He P.
Radiological diagnosis of foreign body inhalation in children: a review of 343 cases
Otol1990 J throat; 104:778–82.
G. of OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science.
December 17, 1897 meeting of Freiburg Physicians Association.
Wochenschr1989, Minghe Medical Center; 45:378.
Jackson C.
Disease of air and food channels from foreign bodies.
Philadelphia: W. B. Sanders, 1936
Barrett CR, Wigan JJ, Bell al.
Flexible colonoscopy for airway management during acute respiratory failure.
I am Minister disir Dis1974; 109:429–34.
Scientific OpenUrlPubMedWeb Ikeda S.
Atlas of flexible colonoscopy.
Baltimore: University Park Press, 1974: 220.
Rhodes ML zavara DC.
Experimental study of foreign body removal by fiber support mirror.
I am Minister disir Dis1974; 110:357–60.
OpenUrlPubMedWeb of science
Flexible fiber optic mirror when foreign matter is taken out.
Experience in 300 cases. Chest1978; 73:725–6.
Scientific openurlcross pubpubmedweb lan RS, Lee CH, Jiang YC, etc.
The foreign body of the trachea in adults was examined with a colonoscopy.
I am Minister disir Dis1989; 140:1734–7.
What about OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science, Prakash UB.
Foreign body in adult trachea.
An intern Med1990; 112:604–9.
Sordebeljak A, Sorli J, Music E, etc.
Adult airway foreign body removal: Experience of 62 patients during the period 1974-1998.
Euro Respir J1999; 14:792–5.
OpenUrlAbstract/free full Text hangrafanan AL, Meita AC.
Removal of foreign body in adult airway. What's new?
Clin Chest med2003; 22:319–30.
PT, Williams TJ, Teichtahl High, etc. of openurlcrossrefpmedweb Science GmbH Clark.
The foreign body in the near and peripheral trachea was removed with flexible fiber optical fiber support mirror.
Intensive care of Anaesth 1989; 17:205–8.
A, Zebrak J, OpenUrlPubMedWeb Science.
Changes in trachea scars caused by foreign bodies. Wiad Lek1995; 48:140–2.
Openurlpubmedmansomur Y, Beck R, Danino J, etc.
Solution of serious support after taking out for a long time
Standing to keep foreign bodies.
Pediatr Pulmonol1998; 25:130–2.
N, Swaz MN, OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science ascend Morton. Bronchiectasis.
Middle: Fissman AP, Elias JA, Fishman JA, et al. , eds.
Lung disease in Fishman3rd Ed.
Philadelphia: Macquarie
Mountain, 1998: 2046-70.
Mahmud F. Ernst KD
Reversible cystic expansion of the distal airway due to foreign bodies.
J1994, South Mediterranean; 87:404–6.
Scientific OpenUrlPubMedWeb khkhatibi S, Rouzaud P, Lauque D, etc.
Recurrent lung disease in the middle.
Pastor pourol Clin1999; 55:187–8.
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Chat Online inputting...