effect of superabsorbent polymer (tarawat a200) on forage yield and qualitative characters in corn under deficit irrigation condition in khoy zone (northwest of iran). - super absorbent polymer cost
Introduction to the objectives of the well-
Regulation deficit irrigation is to save water by keeping the crop in a period of water stress with minimal impact on yield.
Iran's climate is dry and semi-arid, so drought stress is considered to be one of the main problems of agricultural production in Iran and other parts of the world ,[19, 26-34].
Average f water productivity (WP)
Thane 1 is more in the world.
5 tons of dry material that consumes 1000 m³ of water, compared with less than 0 in Iran. 7 
Therefore, the selection of new irrigation methods or better water management systems is necessary for national development.
Water shortage is usually one of the important reasons for the decline in unit area performance in arid and semi-arid areas.
Since 75% of ofIran's annual rainfall is less than 250mm, the danger of droughtis is considered to be a severe low potential water volume caused by water shortage in the soil, which is one of the main natural limitations of natural and agricultural ecosystem productivity, causing huge economic losses in many regions ,.
In the past, irrigation has always been a key solution to this problem, but because of the growing demand for irrigation in society, today it is not a reasonable choice, it increases the financial cost .
From the point of view of saving researchers water and well irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas, it creates pressure at the stage of plant growth without losing its performance.
On the other hand, the use of highly absorbent polymers can become a general solution for Iranian agriculture .
There are several signs of highly absorbent polymers on the Iranian market for fields, gardens and landscapes [1 .
High water absorption resin can accommodate 400-
1500 grams of water per gram .
The use of high absorbent polymers is of great significance in improving water absorption capacity and maintaining water shortage conditions and reducing the effects of drought stress ,. Corn (Zea mays L. )
As an important plant for human food (20-25%)
Livestock and poultry feed (6070%)
As an industrial raw material (5%).
Corn is one of the best plants to produce green feed, silage feed and grain because it contains sugar and starch and produces more than 80 tons of fresh feed per hectare .
On the other hand, in Iran, we produce a shortage of animal feed, and the livestock grazing pressure on the pasture is very high. Therefore, corn production is very important in Iran.
Water shortage is an important factor in corn production.
Studies have shown that suitable water management and effective water management in corn farms can improve yield and water use efficiency as well as corn silage and grain quality [7, 16]. Jose et al. , 
It shows that corn production can be reduced to 37-under drought stress-
79% under stress-free conditions. Majdom, 
It is reported that the increase in drought stress can reduce the stem weight from 347 to 154g [m. sup. -2].
Therefore, his results show that the dry weight of the ear is reduced from 149 grams to 134 grams [m. sup. -2], .
Studies by Ibrahim andHala showed that the highest plant height, Spike traits and biomass were obtained at different irrigation intervals at 10 days of irrigation intervals, followed by 14 days and 188]. Karimi et al. .
In a study of the effects of deficit irrigation on morphological features and Growth Analysis of Iranian feed corn, after missing 75% soil moisture, irrigation was shown to reduce leap dry weight, plant growth rate and leaf area
The result is this.
It was shown that the intensity of drought stress significantly reduced the total dry matter, ear dry weight, stem dry weight, number of leaves per plant and stem height. Khadem et al. , 
In an experiment of the effects of animal manufacturers and super-absorbent polymers on maize, drought stress by increasing irrigation after evaporation of 70mm to 140mm biological yield in the class A basin and relative water content was reported, leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value)
1000 of grain weight was significantly reduced, but the highest yield was obtained using 35% of high water absorption + 65% of animal feces under non-stress and stress conditions of corn. Yazdani et al. , 
The report said that the highest leaf area index, crop growth rate, total dry matter and harvest index obtained using 225 kg [ha. sup. -1]
Polymer compared with control (No polymer)
The use of polymers can reduce the adverse effects of drought stress in soybeans. EL-Amir et al. , 
Who has shown that the improvement of the soil with a high absorbent polymer has been extended for a period of time until 50% of the soil moisture evaporates.
Add high water absorption polymer to sandy soil mediumesculentum (tomato)
, Rhaphanus satira (radish)
Ordinary wheat (wheat)
And lettuce (lettuce)
By Yazdani etc. , .
An annual plant sensitive to drought, such as a dwarf (petunia)
, Good reaction to high water absorption polymer under dry conditions, increasing the number of flowers and drying weight .
According to pilgrimage Hassani xiang sheng and so on. , 
By increasing drought stress in the case of evaporation of 160mm in the class A basin, fresh forage and dry forage yield, stem diameter, leaf dryness of forage sorghum, forage corn and forage millet
Results of Nazarli and Zardashti ,
It shows that drought stress significantly reduces all the measured traits of Sunflower (
As a result, their results show that 300 kg [ha. sup. -1]
The yield of polymerization application was the highest, which improved the effect of drought stress.
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Tarawat A 200 high water absorbent polymer and water stress on fresh feed, biological yield, dry weight of stem, dry weight of Spike, ratio of spike to stem, ash, protein content, relative water content and water use efficiency of silage corn varK. S.
C. farm conditions 704
Materials and methods the experiment was conducted at Khoy Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in western Azerbaijan province on 2008 and 2009 (
The experimental design is based on the stripe arrangement of random complete blocks copied four times.
Table 1 shows the physical and chemical properties of the soil in the experimental field. Main plots(strips)
Including irrigation levels as irrigation [I. sub. 1]= 100%,[I. sub. 2]= 75% and [I. sub. 3]
= 50% of the water needed for corn.
Before the off-arm plough, the irrigation duration calculated using the blani kriddle method was determined by double-laps to determine the water penetration value.
Grade 5 High Water Absorption Resin (Tarawat A 200)at [S. sub. 1]= Control (
Does not contain high water absorption resin), [S. sub. 2]= 50 kg [ha. sup. -1],[S. sub. 3]= 100kg [ha. sup. -1], [S. sub. 4]= 150 kg [ha. sup. -1]and S5= 200kg [ha. sup. -1]
High absorbent resin used before planting to 15 cm deep trench.
The physical and chemical properties of the high absorbent resin presented in Table 2.
Each plot consists of 6 rows of 10 m long 0. 6 m width. There was 1.
8 m distance between strips and 3 m distance between sub-plots (
Super absorbent contained in the plot).
The irrigation method is to measure the siphon and water consumption with 2 inch contour.
Application of total phosphorus and potash fertilizer in three stages: 1/3 before sowing, 6-1/3
8 leaves, flowering period 1/3.
Corn variety Ksc 704,120-
The maturity time and plant density of 130 days were 8. 3 plants m2.
In this study, the quantity of fresh feed, biological yield (dry matter)
Leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, ear-stem ratio, water use efficiency, relative water content, ash content on the ground and protein content on the ground.
In the measurement of feature sampling, measurements of edge effects were made between the on-line strips, used to measure fresh forageyield sampling of two square meters in each plot and blade, with selected stems and weights determined, respectively, dry weight of these bacteria determined by drying in the statistical analysis of data includes ANOVA (ANOVA)
The separation of Aven 72 'C and relative water content of leaves was obtained by the following formula: RWC % = [F. sub. w-[O. sub. w]/Tw-
Dw x 100 Fw = fresh weight Dw = dry weight Tw = total dry weight moisture utilization efficiency is obtained by the following formula: total dry matter for WUE = [m. sup. -2]/ Water used ([m. sup. 3])in1[m. sup. 2]
Duncam's approach uses theMSTAT-for a new multi-range testC program.
Results and discussion of fresh feed: Considering the statistical results, the output of fresh feed is subject to the year of planting, irrigation level, high water absorption polymer (Table 3).
The largest fresh feed in the second year of planting was 53. 562 ton ha-
10% more than the first year. 2008). I1 Treatment (
Irrigation according to 100% of the amount of water)by62. 133 Ton [ha. sup. -1]
It is the highest fresh feed between other irrigation treatments.
Minimum fresh feed 32. 40 Ton [ha. sup. -1]obtained in [I. sub. 3]
Treatment at the age of 36.
Less than 4% of non-missing treatment.
The application of high suction agent can make the output of fresh feed from 46. 687 Ton [ha. sup. -1]in [S. sub. 1](control)to54. 559 Ton [ha. sup. -1]in [S. sub. 5](200kg polymer).
No significant difference [S. sub. 5]and [S. sub. 4]
Treatment, so, there is no difference [S. sub. 1]and [S. sub. 2]treatment(Table 4).
In this experiment, we did not observe irrigation levels and
Level of absorbent polymer (Table 3).
Biological yield: the probability of biological yield is 1% in the case of different planting years, irrigation levels and high amount of absorbent polymer (Table 3).
Year two (2009)
The average dry matter is 15. 712 Ton [ha. sup. -1]
14 years old is more than the first year. 42 Ton [ha. sup. -1](Table 4).
Irrigation on a 100% basis 18. 737 Ton ha-
1 The highest dry matter, irrigation 50%, irrigation 11. 54 Ton [ha. sup. -1]
The lowest biomass.
The highest biological output is 16. 127 Ton [ha. sup. -1]
Application of 200 kg high water absorption resin.
There was no significant difference between using 200 and 150 kg ([S. sub. 4])superabsorbent.
The lowest biological yield in [view]S. sub. 1](
Application of high water absorption resin
This treatment will produce 13856 Ton [ha. sup. -1]
Biomass and allocation of the C statistical group (table 4).
There was no significant statistical difference in the interaction effect between irrigation level and high absorbent polymer level (Table 3).
Leaf Dry weight: leaf dry weight was carried out at a probability of 1% for 2 experimental years, irrigation level and high water absorption (Table 3).
In the second year of the experiment, the total weight was 2. 406 Ton [ha. sup. -1]
In the first year of the experiment, the dry weight of the leaves was 2. 168 Ton ha-1.
On the other hand the second years leaf dry weight (LDW)was 9.
9% more than the first year. 2008year).
Under drought stress, the dry matter content of leaves was from 2. 827 Ton [ha. sup. -1]in [I. sub. 1]treatment to 1. 784 Ton[ha. sup. -1]in [I. sub. 3]treatment.
This is a reduction of 36. 9 percent(Table 4).
The increase in the application of high water absorption resin leads to the dry weight of the blade from 2. 052 Ton [ha. sup. -1]in [S. sub. 1]treatment(control)to 2. 510 Ton [ha. sup. -1]in [S. sub. 5]treatment (
Application 200 kg 【ha. sup. -1]superabsorbent).
No significant difference between S5 and [S. sub. 4]treatment.
So there is no significant difference [S. sub. 3]and [S. sub. 2]treatment (Table3).
There was no significant difference in the interaction between irrigation levels and super-absorbent polymers.
Stem Dry weight: in this two-year experiment, there were statistically significant differences between experimental analysis, irrigation level and superabsorbent application.
The maximum weight of dry stems is 5. 21 ton ha-
Seems to be in the second year (2009 year)that 3.
1% is the first year.
With the increase of drought stress, the total stem dry weight decreased, and on the other hand, the stem dry weight decreased from 6. 808 ton [ha. sup. -1]in [I. sub. 3]treatment(
50% of irrigation water)(Table 4).
The amount of high absorbent resin will affect this feature, therefore ,.
200 kg [maximum stem dry weight observed]ha. sup. -1]
High Water Absorption Polymer Consumption 5. 773 Ton [ha. sup. -1]was 16.
4% more than no consumption treatment ([S. sub. 1])(Table 4).
There was no statistically significant difference [S. sub. 5]and [S. sub. 4]
Treatment and [S. sub. 3]by [S. sub. 2]treatments, so.
In this experiment, the interaction between the consumption of high water absorbent and the absorption level was not significant (Table 3).
Ear Dry weight: ear dry weight is another feature evaluated in this experiment.
The results showed that there were significant differences between 2 experimental years, irrigation levels and super-absorbent polymer consumption in 1% of the experiments.
Level probability (Table 3)
The dry ear weight of the second year of the experiment was 7. 741 Ton[ha. sup. -1]
The first year was 7 years old. 234 Ton [ha. sup. -1]
In the second year of the experiment, its number was 6.
5% more than the first year. 2008year).
The results showed that the dry ear weight was from 9 by increasing or lacking the method of selecting dry ear weight under drought stress. 126 Ton [ha. sup. -1]in[I. sub. 1]treatment to 5. 936 Ton [ha. sup. -1]
9% less than under stress-free conditions ([I. sub. 1])(Table 4).
Super suction can reduce the dry weight of the ear from 6. 924 Ton [ha. sup. -1]High water absorption ([S. sub. 5])
However, there is no statistically significant difference [S. sub. 5], [S. sub. 4], [S. sub. 3]and[S. sub. 2]treatments (Table 4).
Earshot ratio: the results of this feature show that there is no significant difference between the two experimental years.
The probability between the three irrigation levels was 5%, with statistical differences, but there was no significant difference between the five levels of the high absorbent polymer (table 3).
The maximum spike number of 50% irrigation treatment is 0.
507 in the upper statistics group (Table 4).
In this study, there was no significant interaction between irrigation levels and high water-absorbing polymer levels (Table 3).
Water use efficiency: Considering the water use efficiency, there is a significant statistical difference between the experimental year, irrigation level and the application amount of high water-absorbing polymer in this study, with a probability of 1% level (Table 3).
The maximum water efficiency is in the second year (2009)with 2. 57 kg [m. sup. -3]
Year One (2008)it was 2. 57 kg [m. sup. 3].
50% maximum water use efficiency obtained in water treatment ([I. sub. 3])thatby 2. 945 kg [m. sup. -3]
In the high statistics group (Table 4).
There is no statistical difference between the two other irrigation treatments, these two [I. sub. 1]and [I. sub. 2]
Treatment in the same group (Table 4).
The use of high water absorption resin can improve the water use efficiency.
The application of 200 kg polymer WUE is the highest, which is 2. 844kg [m. sup. -3]
[Nothing different]S. sub. 4]treatment.
Minimum water efficiency seen in [S. sub. 1]
We did not use any treatment of high absorbent resin and 2. 446 kg [m. sup. -3]
In the minimum statistics group (Table 4).
Relative water capacity: relative water capacity (RWC)
It is one of the measurement traits affected by planting years, irrigation amount and High Water Absorption Polymer in this experiment (Table 3).
The determination of the 2-year experiment RWC showed 80 in the second year.
The value of 799 is 79 higher than that of the first year. 858(table 4).
Inadequate irrigation reduces relative water volume.
RWC has a maximum of 83.
957 basic water consumption related to irrigation 100% ([I. sub. 1])
The lowest RWC for Wile is 76.
44 values related to irrigation, based on 50% of water consumption ([I. sub. 3])(Table 4).
The application of increasing the high absorbent polymer can increase the RWC, which is the highest RWC seen in 200 kg [ha. sup. -1]
The application of high water absorbent polymer and the distribution of this treatment level in a higher statistical group, but there is no significant difference in this level S. sub. 4]level.
Low estrwc related to non-application of high absorbent polymer and 78.
807 average allocation of minimum statistical groups (Table 4)
So there is no significant difference [S. sub. 1]and [S. sub. 2]treatments (Table 4).
In this experiment, there is no interaction between irrigation treatment and high absorbent polymer (Table 3).
Percentage of protein: percentage of protein in shoots measured in this experiment.
The two-year experiment and the level of high absorbent resin did not have any significant effect, so. (table 3).
But there was a significant difference between the three irrigation levels in this study, with a probability of 1% (P>0. 01 tab. 3)
The results show that the maximum percentage of protein obtained by irrigation at 100% of water consumption ([I. sub. 1])
Different from [I. sub. 2]and [I. sub. 3]treatments (Table 4). the [I. sub. 1]
215 protein percentage in top Statistics Group and I. sub. 2]and [I. sub. 3]
Irrigation levels located in the same group.
On the other hand, there is no significant difference in irrigation based on water consumption of 75% and 50%.
In this study, there was no significant difference between the interaction effect and deficit irrigation treatment at different levels and the consumption of various high absorbent polymers (Table 3).
Ash percentage: Ash percentage can be used as an indicator of plant minerals assessed in this study.
Regarding the percentage of ash, there was no significant difference between the two experimental years, irrigation levels, and the amount of high absorbent polymers (Table 3)
Therefore, all levels of the three irrigation treatments allocated in the same statistical group (Table 3).
Discussion: The cell growth and division of plants depend entirely on water.
The decrease of cell penetration potential under drought stress ultimately reduces cell growth, plant growth and root development .
The activity of the intermediate stem cells located in the Internode and cell division of the region depends on the availability of water .
In this experiment, fresh feed was once one of several features of the evaluation.
Compared to the other two irrigation levels, this feature is reduced by drought stress and by selecting 50% of the water demand.
According to pilgrimage Hassani xiang sheng and so on. , 
Results and anwar et al. , 
The increasing drought stress of forage corn reduced the yield of fresh feed.
They report that the reason for this reduction is a decrease in the secretion potential within the cell, a decrease in cell length and Bud division.
High water absorbent resin with high water holding capacity can prove the bad effect of deficit irrigation in this study;
On the other hand, through control treatment (S1)
Can increase the output of fresh feed.
My findings are consistent with those of Khadem et al ,results.
Biological Production (dry matter)
Is another feature of this study evaluation.
Drought stress leads to a decline in biological production, which is the lowest biomass I. sub. 3]treatment.
According to the report [Atya]2]
In the process of photosynthesis and growth, the effects of drought stress are generally considered as adecrease.
He reported that ,[o. sub. 2]
In moderate drought, even before the water condition of the leaves changes due to air humidity or potential water volume of the soil, assimilation in the leaves decreases.
Several avoidance lines indicate that the reduction in photosynthesis due to drought is attributed both to air-pore limitation and to non-air-pore limitation .
Pore closure is the first line of defense to prevent dehydration, as it changes much faster than root growth, leaf area, and mitochondrial superstructures and pigment proteins 2].
The result of these problems is an increase in yield and biomass, so under drought stress conditions, because the relative partial limitation of photosynthesis depends on the severity of drought, the biological yield decreases, so, irrigation treatment required for water use in 75% ([I. sub. 2])
Through 50% of the water treatment, the decline in biological production is less than irrigation ([I. sub. 3]).
Leaves in silage maize used to be an important yield component because the leaves have high fatty acids, crude proteins and high total digestive nutrients .
According to Majdom ,
It was reported that drought stress and nitrogenusing had an effect on yield and yield components, and after evaporation of water holding capacity in the field by 50%, the dry weight of the stem, especially the dry weight of the stem, was significantly reduced.
As the water content of plants decreases, wrinkle cells and cell walls weaken and cell volume decreases, thus reducing the pressure potential . Kamara et al 
It is shown that there is a highly significant difference in total biomass and distribution of stems, leaves and grains in both wells
Watering and watering
Deficit conditions for dry weight of all maize genotype stems.
Haji Hasani xiang sheng and so on. , 
In irrigation after evaporation in Class A basin 160 mme, the dry weight of the stems of all three genotypes (
(Corn, sorghum, millet)
A sharp decrease.
They claim that the reason for this reduction is the potential decrease in water volume of cells.
In this study, the application of high water absorption resin can regulate the water shortage effect.
Karimi and Naderi ,
In greenhouse conditions, consuming high-absorbent polymers in pods in plant beds would adjust the bad effects of feed corn deficit irrigation, the statement said.
He reported that the dry mass ratio of stems and leaves under drought stress was lower than that of no high suction water treatment, so.
Ears are an important part of silage corn feed because of the high nutritional value of the ears.
The sugar and starch content in the ear is high, which leads to a shortage during the non-aerobic fermentation period and also increases the food value of silage ,.
In this study, drought stress resulted in a decrease in dry spike weight compared to good irrigation conditions.
Under the condition of insufficient irrigation, the dry weight of leaves and stems is lower than the dry weight of the spike, because the spike-stem ratio is high under dry conditions, while all the total dry weight, due to insufficient irrigation, stem weight and ear dry weight decreased.
On the other hand, the rate of decline in dry ear weight is lower than the dry weight of leaves and stems.
In this study, we did not find any significant effect of high absorbent polymer on thistrait, so we cannot increase the spike-stem ratio of corn under deficit conditions by consuming high absorbent polymer.
Ash percent was once a qualified trait evaluated in this experiment.
Ash is a marker of all minerals except iodine and bile salt ions, as these elements are sublimated by burning in electric furnaces.
Every lack of minerals in grass food can lead to some diseases, such as milk heat and grass .
In this study, the absence and consumption of high water absorbent resin had no significant effect on this feature, but Haj Hassani asl et al. , 
According to the report, drought stress of three feed crops (
(Corn, sorghum, millet)
In sorghum, the ash decreased significantly, compared with millet and Jade Rice.
The percentage of protein in shoots is another quality trait, which is significantly reduced under irrigation.
A decrease in the percentage of proteins reported by many researchers, such as Misra 
In Xiaomi, Haji Thani asl, etc. ,
Millet, sorghum and corn, Karimi and Naderi in corn.
According to reports from Karimi and Naderi 
Under drought stress, the protein destroys any Riboluse double phosphate carbon enzyme (Rubisco)
This is the most common protein of plants in inadequate irrigation and will decrease .
With the exception of Khadem et al, the application of high water absorption will not affect the percentage of protein. , 
The percentage of proteins increased with high absorption applications, the report said.
In this study, relative water content was positively correlated with soil-related water content and decreased with water scarcity.
RWC declined as corn [deficit irrigation] increased13].
Nazarliand Zardashti reported that the RWC of sunflowers was reduced in the absence of irrigation conditions compared to the non-stress conditions, and the highest and lowest RWC was reduced by 83. 827 and 49.
6 days irrigation interval 770 ha-300 kg values observed
1 high water absorption application and 14-day irrigation interval without high water absorption . Khadem et al. , 
It is reported that the application of high water absorbent resin in nine different growth stages of corn has no significant effect on rwc.
This study shows that the application of high water absorption resin can effectively retain the water content of the root system and improve the adverse effects of drought stress.
The application of polymers in sandy soil space may increase water holding capacity and help improve irrigation projects in arid and semi-arid areas .
In this study, water use efficiency increased with the intensity of deficit irrigation.
Karimi and Naderi ,
It is reported that the application of high water absorption resin and the application of high water absorption resin have the highest and lowest yield and WUE values, respectively.
Their results suggest that WUE was also increased by drought stress.
Karimi and Naderi evaluated the effects of high water absorption polymers on yield and water use efficiency of different soil textures in feed corn in one experiment.
Their results show that the maximum and minimum WUE were obtained in clay and loamsoil, respectively, while in sand loamsoil, the efficiency ratio of the highly absorbent polymer is better than the viscosity12].
Results Ghadiri and Majidian 
Salemi and Moshref , Majdom 16]
Deficit irrigation increases water use efficiency compared to good irrigation conditions.
Admit that we want to Mr.
Mr. Navab Haji SweeneyAli Dorosti,Mr.
Mr. Reza salahlu
Mr. Nasser houseni.
Mr. Mahdi tahill.
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Artificial neural network of pollution effects of Droughton Zayandehrood Lenj Station River (ANN).
Progress in environmental biology, 5 (7): 1461-1464. [28. ]Sharafzadeh, S. , M. Deimehr, A. E. Jahromi, 2011.
Effects of irrigation regime on growth and yield of two potato varieties.
Progress in environmental biology, 5 (7): 1476-1479. [29. ]Bagheri, H. , 2011.
Evaluation of some physiological properties of winter rapeseed varieties under drought stress.
Progress in environmental biology, 5 (7): 1527-1530. [30. ]Ghanifathi, T. , M. Valizadeh, R. Shahryari, H. Shahbazi,2011.
Effects of drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of 12 kinds of bread wheat
Progress in environmental biology, 5 (6): 1034-1039. [31. ]Dadbakhsh, A. , A. Y. Sepas, 2011.
Evaluation of drought resistance index for screening bread wheat genotypes
Seasonal drought stress conditions.
Progress in environmental biology, 5 (6):1040-1045. [32. ]Dadbakhsh, A. , A. Y. Sepas, 2011.
Drought tolerance of bread wheat after pollination was evaluated by stress and sensitivity resistance index.
Progress in environmental biology, 5 (6):1046-1050. [33. ]Dadbakhsh, A. , A.
Yazdansepas and rice.
Effects of drought stress on wheat yield
Common wheat. )
Genotype of drought resistance index.
Progress in environmental biology, 5 (7):1804-1810. [34. ]Ahmadizadeh, M. , M. Valizadeh, H. Shahbazi, M.
Zaefizadeeh andM. Habibpor, 2011.
Morphological diversity and relationships of local varieties of durum wheat under normal irrigation and drought stress.
Progress in environmental biology, 5 (7): 1934-1940. (1)
Javad Khalili Mahara2)
Hussein Haidri Sharif Abad (2)
Gorban Nourmohammadi ,(2)
Farrokh Darvish (2)
Dr. agriculture, Islamic Azad University of Technical Science and Research (2)
Scientific member of the scientific research division of Tehran, Islamic Azad University. (3)
Scientific member of the University of Islamic Azad Khoy, communications author Javad Khalili Mahalleh, PhD
Dr. , Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tehran. E-
Mail: j_khalili_m @ yahoo