diaper tech: inspired by babies - super absorbent polymer chemistry
Not many research facilities are decorated with giant bumblebees and ducklings on the walls.
They also do not tend to distract learning objects with color slides and micro shopping carts.
Pampers is the first brand to introduce disposable diaper technology widely. for more than 50 years, Pampers have been understanding the needs of parents and babies to create new innovations.
At P & G diaper R & D centers in the United States and Germany, there are about 250 researchers, part of a global team of more than 800 scientists, from dermatologists, chemists to material engineers, future diapers are being designed.
The team's creativity allowed P & G to submit more than 5000 diapers.
Disposable diapers have undergone immeasurable changes since the beginning of late 1940.
However, their main purpose is still the same: minimize leakage, keep the skin dry and healthy, and the baby is comfortable.
To help achieve this goal, babies and toddlers are invited on a regular basis
Friendly research suites in Germany.
Observe the shape, fit and movement of their diapers when they play.
Detailed measurements are made in a large 3D scanner consisting of 20 sync cameras arranged around the platform.
Below the corridor is a dedicated laboratory where dermatologists measure skin pH and moisture loss as part of their efforts to reduce skin irritation.
The researchers also distributed a bag of diapers to 1,200 families every week.
These may be experimental designs or existing products.
Parents are required to record the performance of each job, detailing the leakage, shape changes, and dryness and condition of the skin.
This feedback is combined with the properties of the material in the diaper (such as elasticity and absorption) to create a new computer model of the design.
For example, these are used to calculate the possibility of leakage or excessive sagging.
"We can evaluate 20 virtual diaper prototypes and we can eliminate all but two or three," said Dr. Frank Wiesmann, Chief baby care scientist at P & G . ".
"Then, instead of testing all 20 of these, we test them fully.
"Germany plays a key role in diaper design.
For example, under the permeable sheets next to the baby's skin, most diapers have a polymer "collection layer" that can suck urine away from the skin.
P & G scientists added a second "distribution layer" to Pampers diapers, which dispersed the liquid around the diapers in order to absorb it more effectively.
This fiber is mainly made of cellulose, a slender fiber extracted from the pulp.
P & G sees them as a short "cross link" to the reinforcement fibers "(see graphic).
This helps the diaper absorb quickly, and even when the diaper is full, the child sits on it.
The liquid flows along the gap between tightly bound cellulose chains, which are like capillary tubes.
"No matter where the baby is, you need to actively distribute urine," said Dr. Ute Frolich, a senior scientist at P & G.
"The capillary force between cellulose fibers is high, so urine moves quickly even under the action of gravity.
Most liquids are then transferred to the absorbent core layer of the diaper.
Until recently, the core of Pampers diapers was similar to the core of some other brands: a mixture of cellulose and super absorbent polymer particles, capable of absorbing a large amount of liquid relative to their own weight.
The idea is that cellulose will initially absorb urine, and the high absorbent polymer will dry cellulose.
However, it is not possible to completely dry cellulose, so urine can be released back to the skin under pressure.
To solve this problem, P & G has developed a new high-absorbent polymer that can absorb urine faster and allow them to remove cellulose from the core.
This reduces the weight of a Pampers by about 5 grams, or 16 cents, which is good for children.
In a study funded by P & G, psychologists at New York University have shown that thin disposable items help young children keep their feet and reduce falls and falls compared to diapers.
Some high absorbent polymers can occupy hundreds of times their weight in liquids, but P & G limits the absorption weight of the new version to between 20 and 30 times.
As a result, the particles do not merge into a jelly-like blob.
Even if saturated, they exist as separate spheres so that any excess urine can flow through them and be absorbed elsewhere.
Innovation is not over.
Some diapers leak when worn by active babies due to loss of shape.
To minimize this, P & G has recently shaped the core into three channels to help keep diapers in shape.
Finally, feces are more difficult to deal with than urine.
Clinical studies have shown that enzymes in feces may be aggressive on the baby's skin, especially when activated in urine at a high pH.
Rapid removal of feces from the skin can reduce the risk of diaper dermatitis.
To improve performance, Pampers have a small cone hole at the top of the premium protective diaper that allows the feces to enter the core rather than spread over the top.
This reduces the exposure of feces to the skin.
"When I chose to study, I didn't intend to be an expert in poo and urinating," said floric . ".
"I didn't realize how much amazing science was in modern diapers at the time.