development of probiotic candies with optimal viability by using response surface methodology and sequential quadratic programming. - oxygen absorber
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to create a new type of probiotic candy with good flavor and health by using response surface method and sequence quadratic programming technology.
The aim is to increase the variety of dairy products and increase their market value.
In this study, mixed cultures of milk and yogurt (
L. bulgaricus, S. thermophile)Probiotics (L.
5) long-form bacteria (paracasei)
And Hatch in [degrees]C for 20 h.
The sample is mixed with lyo protective agent (
Lactose, skim milk powder, sucrose)
, Freeze and dry, and then mix with sweeteners (
Lactose and xylitol)
Improve the texture of the tablets.
The process conditions are optimized in two steps: the first step is to establish the Surface model by using the response surface dynamics;
The second step is to optimize the model using a sequence quadratic programming program.
The results show that L.
Delbrueckii. Bulgaricus, S.
L. heat. Sub-species Paracasei.
Paracasei and B.
Hybrid flow and hybrid flow.
9% lactose, 7.
0% sucrose and 8.
0% of skim milk powder will produce a probiotic candy with the highest probiotic activity and good taste.
The survival rate of probiotics is relatively high, and it is possible to place probiotic candy products in glass bottles by degrees]C.
The number of these probiotics remains [10. sup. 6]-[10. sup. 8]
CFU/g after two months of saving. (
Key words: Probiotics, probiotics, optimization, response surface dynamics, sequence quadratic programming
In recent years, the consumption of fermented milk, especially probiotic products, has increased worldwide (Carvalhoet al. , 2004).
Probiotics are defined as "viable microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on host health by improving intestinal microbial balance "(Mattila-Sandholm et al. , 2002).
Probiotics are added to fermented dairy products only due to certain results that claim to be healthy
Their role in promoting the intestinal tract of consumers is also due to the increasing variety of products that can be prepared with probiotics (Geely Lan, 1989).
It is reasonable to suggest the development of new probiotics
Based on dairy products, consumer varieties can be increased and the robustness of the dairy industry can be enhanced by stimulating demand.
Freeze-drying has always been an option for a long time
Regular preservation of biologically active substances.
The shrinkage produced by this dehydration method is very small, and the result is a completely dissolved product, which is easy to re-hydrate.
In addition, freeze-drying is a commonly used retention lactic acid bacterial starter in dairy products and food fermentation (Lodato et al. , 1999).
However, not all strains can survive in the process (Abadias et al. , 2001).
The main reason for losingcell vitality in freeze-drying may be ice crystal formation and high penetration concentration (Conrad et al. , 2000).
Microbial cell survival during freeze-drying depends on many factors, including protective additives and conditions in the process of replenishing water (
Fontde Valdez et al. , 1983).
Many compounds have been tested to improve the survival of lactic acid bacteria during freeze-drying, including polysaccharides, double sugars, amino acids and proteins (Champagne etal. , 1991).
In most cases, these compounds are found to have an effective protective effect on different lactic acid bacteria (Leslie et al. ,1995; Linders et al. , 1997; Carvalho et al. , 2002). Zayed and Roos(2004)
The effects of lyo protective agent on the survival of saliva release line bacteria were studied, and it was found that in addition to skim milk, seaweed sugar and sucrose were added as the most effective materials.
On the other hand, Chen et al. (2006)
The effects of freeze-drying on microorganisms in open field were studied, and it was shown that the addition of 10% lactose or 10% sucrose as lyo protectant significantly improved the survival rate of lactic acid bacteria and yeast (pf)below 0.
05 is considered significant. The highest-
A prominent polynomial was selected. The Lack-of-
Fitting test, measure the fit degree of the obtained model, and compare the residual error and pure error of the replication design point.
Model without major missing-of-Choose fit.
The analysis results show that,
The order model is very suitable for presenting experimental data with the determination coefficient ([R. sup. 2])between 0. 95-0. 99.
Table 4 shows the coefficients of the two responses.
Two answers (
Survival of lactic acid bacteria and survival of probiotics)
Then combine into a combined function (CF)
, Defined in the equation (2)
Then the biggest problem can be solved by optimizing the technology. CF = ([f. sub. 1]+ [f. sub. 2])/ 2 (2)
Optimization using SQP: describe the optimization results (
Proportion of maintenance agents for maximum probiotic survival rate), a 3-
Generate a D response surface graph by fixing one of the three variables.
In our study, the viability of probiotics increased with the increase of the three protective substances (Figure 1). Kets et al. (1996)
It is reported that since lyo protective agents help probiotics adapt to the environment, they can be added during freeze-drying to maintain the viability of probiotics.
When compatible lyo protection substances accumulate in the cell, the penetration difference between them and the external environment will be reduced. [
Figure 1 slightly]
Search for the best proportion of probioticandy's lyo protectant from the composite function (equation (1))
, One by multiple
In order to search for the global optimum, we encode the start SQP.
The program generates a series of evenly distributed random points, each representing the initial design of the lyo protective agent temperature.
Then, apply SQP according to each initial design to find the best.
If the probability of optimal global exceeds the preset value (99.
99% this study)
Consider finding the global optimal.
Otherwise, generate the next random initial design and regenerate the SQPexecuted.
After 17 randomly generated initial designs, the best CF values of 17 groups were obtained (localoptima)ranging from 0. 631 to 0. 685 (Figure 2)
It is found that the global optimal CFwas is 0. 685 (99. 99% certainty).
The global optimal CF value is 0.
Lactic acid bacteria 770 and 0.
601 is used for the survival of probiotics.
The best CF value is the highest (0. 685)
Reach 10 of the 17 groups with the best points X1 (sucrose)= 7. 0%and X2 (galactose)= 6. 9% and X3 (SMP)= 8. 0% (Figure 1).
Experimental Verification: the optimal lyo protectant ratio for maximum probiotic survival was obtained from SQP and verified by independent additional experiments.
The best combination of care and agent is 7.
0% sucrose and 6.
9% lactose and 8.
0% milk powder.
The experimental value is very close (p>0. 05)
There is no predictive value for significant differences.
Chemical composition, physical properties, total number of colonies and sensory evaluation of the best candy [
The chemical composition of probiotic yogurt candy is shown in Table 5.
The protein content of candy products in the market range from 0% (
Most of the candy, including jelly beans, toffees, etc. )to 5% (
Choc coated with candy milk).
Probiotic yogurt candy contains 13.
8% milk protein, higher than most sweets.
In order to deliver probiotic effects to consumers, a large number of viable cells are required, that is, "the lowest treatment ".
The recommended minimum level of probiotics in yogurt is rmbcfu/ml (Robinson, 1987;
Kurman and Rasic, 1991).
There are 9 products in this product.
04log CFU/ml lactic acid bacteria and 7.
Probiotic of 41 log CFU/ml.
Because this product contains high levels of protein and probiotics and does not contain fat, it should be good for health.
Table 5 lists the physical properties of probiotic yogurt candy.
The average weight of this product is 0. 7 g with 5. 7 mm thickness.
The hardness and crispness of the candy are 64. 55 N and 0.
Bertocchi, etc. (2005)
According to the report, the compression force used in the press plate process has a great impact on the hardness, crushing time and average primary particle size of the press plate.
The dissolution rate of candy is mainly related to the surface properties of tablets.
In addition, the higher crispness improves the dissolution rate of the candy.
This candy needs 15 pieces.
Completely dissolved in water. [
Figure 3 slightly]
The sensory evaluation results showed that the judges evaluated the taste and appearance of probiotic candy as excellent (Data no shown).
Survival of probiotics during storage in order to clarify the effect of temperature and packaging on the survival of probiotics during storage, the product was stored at 4 degrees]C or25[degrees]
The survival of these organisms was measured.
Figure 3 shows the survival of probiotics during storage.
The results of the probiotic count show that, as can be expected, the validity period of all four treatments is reduced as storage time increases.
However, in the probioticandy held on , the number of probiotic survival increaseddegrees]C than at 25[degrees]C.
For example, the number of lactic acid bacteria stored in probiotic candy samples in glass bottles decreased from the initial 9 people. 11 to 8.
69 log CFU/g, the group decreased by only 0.
42 log CFU/g after 2 months of storagedegrees]
C. a relatively large population decreased by 1.
25: 97 log CFU/g [degrees]C.
The survival rate of probioticsin in probiotic candy samples was higher and stored in 4 [degrees]C than 25[degrees]
The Cas noted in this study are consistent with the reports of previous investigators (Champagne, etc. , 1996).
The results of different packaging showed that in the probiotic candy in glass bottles containing dehydrants and desiccant, it was found that the number of cells of lactic acid bacteria and probiotics survived better than in laminated bags (Figure 3).
This may be due to relatively high
Oxygen permeability of laminated bags.
Oxygen during storage affects the vitality of probiotics through the penetration of the package.
Shiqiao, Island Village (1993)
It is found that the higher the oxygen permeability of the package, the lower the activity of probiotics. (2002)
It was found that the survival rate of probiotics preserved in PET bottles was lower than in glass bottles.
Conclusion This study shows that L.
Delbrueckii. bulgaricus, S.
Sub-species Paracasei. Paracasei and B.
Hybrid flow and hybrid flow.
9% lactose, 7.
0% sucrose and 8.
0% of skim milk powder will produce a probiotic candle with the highest probiotic activity and good flavor.
The survival rate of probiotics is relatively high, which can be achieved by placing probiotic candy products into glass bottles equipped with detractors and desiccant degrees]C.
The number of these probiotics remains [10. sup. 6]-[10. sup. 8]
CFU/g after two months of saving.
The authors thank the Taiwan National Science Council for its support for the study.
Received on August 20, 2007;
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Biochemistry. 39:1081-1086. Kun-Nan Chen, Ming-Ju Chen (1), * and Jia-Shian Shiu (1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Taiwan north Tun South University * communication author: Ming-Ju Chen. Tel: +886-2-
33664169, Fax: 886-2-27336312, E-mail: cmj@ntu. edu. tw (1)
Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.