detection of oil product on the water surface with thermal infrared camera. - oil spill pads

by:Demi     2019-09-15
detection of oil product on the water surface with thermal infrared camera.  -  oil spill pads
Abstract.
From all existing Remote detectors, infrared sensors are the cheapest and most widely used.
In this article, the experiment of using a thermal infrared camera to detect the possibility of detecting oil products on the water surface is described.
This assumption is confirmed. -
The thickest layer of used oil products looks hotter than water.
In addition, it was found that the temperature of the surface oil directly depends on the air temperature.
However, the cloud has a great impact on the efficiency of this remote sensing method.
Key words: Oil Spill, water surface, remote sensing, infrared sensor, infrared camera
Crude oil floating on the surface of the ocean can cause harm to the marine and coastal environment and fisheries and tourism (Leifer et al. 2012).
Harmful substances present in crude oil can be transferred from aquatic organisms such as plankton to higher levels of the food chain, resulting in the loss of eggs and even death of oil birds (Jha etal. 2008).
For leaks on open water, the oil spreads to areas where the surface is relatively thin.
The thickness of the lubricating oil depends on the type of ofoil, and the heavy oil will form a thicker lubricating oil (
Order of several millimeters).
The movement and thinning of the oil slide is affected by seastate, and the oil is moved along the surface by the surface current sand wind (Fingas 2011).
Evaporation, water-and other weathering processesin-
The oil emulsion and natural dispersion in the water column are affected by environmental conditions such as temperature and seawater status, as well as the physical properties of the released oil.
Weathering of leaks in open waters can greatly reduce the effectiveness of leak cleaning
Upcountermeasures, making it critical to quickly deploy the countermeasure before oil emulsion (Puestow et al. 2013).
This is why timely and accurate detection of surface oil is very important for monitoring oil spills and managing Marine and Coastal Resources (Leifer et al. 2012).
Remote sensing technology is used to detect oilslicks from laser fluorosensors, optical remote sensing
Ultravioletand etc)
Until the microwave sensor.
However, the most widely used and cheapest is the infrared sensor in optical remote sensing (
Brown as, Brown 2000).
This remote sensing method means that oil absorbs light during the day and converts it into thermal energy at temperatures 3 to 8 k above the ambient temperature, mainly in 8 to 14 cities.
This is through infrared (IR)cameras (Fingas 2015).
The main task of this work is to determine the efficiency and applicability of infrared remote sensing methods.
Methods the experiment was conducted outdoors on sunny days, and sometimes the experimental settings shown in Figure 1 were used to cross the small cloud.
In the experiment, a container with water was used, and six small transparent plastics were used to form three kiness layers of different oil products.
There are 3 layers of different thickness inside the ring (
2 rings of layers of the same thickness).
Plastic foam is used to keep the plastic ring on the water surface.
Diesel oil with diesel oil.
The experiment lasted nearly four hours (
From 08: 57 to 12: 43)
Parameters are measured every 20 seconds.
Finally, the temperature data of 680 measurements were obtained.
Some of the parameters measured are the temperature of the air and water, and the temperature of the diesel layer in each circle.
A total of 8 temperature parameters were obtained.
Measure all temperatures using a thermocouple connected to ALMEMO [R]2890-9 sensor (Fig. 2 a))using ALMEMO[R]ZA 9020-
FSThermo E4 connector (Fig. 2 b)).
2nd and 3rd channels representing the temperature of the thinnest diesel layer (
The first and fourth rings with a thickness of 1mm), 1st and 4th--
Medium thickness (
2 ndand 5 rings 2mm thick), 0 and 5--
The thickest layer of diesel oil (
6 rings of 3rd and 3mm thickness)
, As shown in figure 2. 1.
Channel 6 is Air Channel and Channel 7 is Air Channel
For water temperature.
In addition, take photos using the FLIR B660 hot camera at the same time (Fig. 2c))
And digital cameras.
A total of 13 60 photos were taken. -
Half with flir and half with a digital camera.
Use the FLIR tool program to change the color mark of the temperature to process the obtained photos to obtain visual differences between layers.
Process and render all temperature data using the Microsoft Excel program.
The experimental results obtained the air, water and 6-layer temperature of three kinds of diesel with different thickness (
2 measurements of the same thickness).
Figure 3 shows the change of air and water temperature.
As can be seen from Figure 3, the water temperature has been rising during the experiment.
It is speculated that the temperature is rising because of the rising temperature.
However, it may also be related to used containers that can heat the water inside by absorbing sunlight.
Significant fluctuations in air temperature are related to direct sunlight: when clouds appear, the air temperature is decreasing so that the ability of sunlight to reach the surface of the sun is limited.
Air temperature rises again only 1-
2 minutes after direct sunlight.
It can be seen from the following figure (Fig 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6)
The temperature of the diesel layer depends directly on the air temperature.
After about an hour and 40 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, the air temperature and the thickest diesel layer fluctuated at the same time.
The middle layer of the diesel thickness occurs after about 1 hour and 45 minutes, the thinnest layer--An hour and a half.
In addition, it should be mentioned that the diesel layer in the following figure, as shown in the red line, represents the layer in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd rings (Fig. 1).
At the beginning of the experiment, these people were in the shadow of the container.
This may have a significant effect on the temperature of these layers, as they grow at a slower rate than those in all experiments in direct sunlight.
However, due to the clouds, all layers of diesel are sometimes in shadows, and the temperature reduction of these layers is the result of no direct sunlight.
In this case, the temperature of the diesel layer changes with the change of the air temperature, as shown in Figures 4, 5 and 6.
In addition, the temperature of the diesel layer in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd rings of three different thicknesses was compared, and at the beginning of the experiment, these temperatures were in shadows (Fig. 7)
, And the temperature of layers with different thickness of diesel in 4, 5, and 6 circles that are not overlapped by the container and left in the shadow (Fig. 8).
It can be concluded that the correlation between the temperature of the diesel layer affected by the shadow of the container and the air temperature at the shadow exceeds the layer.
More importantly, the temperature of the diesel layer, that is, the air temperature, is directly affected by the clouds, or in other words, by direct sunlight.
In the absence of direct sunlight, the air temperature and the temperature of the diesel layer are even several times lower than the water temperature.
In addition, after the period of exposure to the shade of the blinds, the temperature of the thickest diesel layer rises faster than that of the thinnest diesel layer.
As mentioned earlier, at the same time, every 20 seconds, take photos of different thickness diesel layer containers with infrared FLIR camera and digital camera.
A total of 1360 photos were taken, but 16 were selected (
8 photos taken with a FLIR camera and 9 photos taken with a digital camera, taken in parallel by two photos)
The difference is evaluated every half hour.
Below is the picture.
In Figure 9 on the left, obvious differences between layers of different thickness can be seen, and the ring in the first row shows a clearer difference.
However, as shown in the photo on the right, that line is in the shadow.
It can happen when a device is set up.
Half an hour later, the layers of different thickness in the first line are in the shadow, and the infrared photos show the appropriate results (Fig. 10).
The temperature of the thickest and medium thickness diesel layer is even lower than the temperature of the surrounding water.
In the second row affected by direct sunlight, very different results can be seen.
The difference between the thickest layers is the largest, and the difference between the thinnest layers is not significant.
An hour later, the results of the infrared photos were very similar to those taken half an hour after the experiment started (Fig. 11).
However, the difference between the thickest and thickest diesel layers in direct sunlight (second row)
Water is more striking.
According to the infrared photo shown in Figure 11, the two most thin layers of diesel temperature are similar to the water temperature.
As can be seen from Figure 12, the difference between the layers of the second row is obvious, the temperature of the water is much lower, even when compared to the thinnest layer of diesel.
The first line has not yet been fully exposed to direct sunlight;
However, this difference is already obvious compared to the water temperature.
In Figure 13 on the left, you can see the obvious and complete visible difference between the temperature of the water and all layers.
All layers are completely exposed to direct sunlight and the maximum temperature can be seen in the thickest layer of diesel.
The temperature of the layer of the second row of medium diesel thickness is close to the temperature of the two thickest layers, which may be due to permanent direct solar access.
Figure 14 shows an example of the impact of the cloud on infrared photos.
Even if no shadows are shown in the photo on the right, this is the case in figure 3. 2-3.
6 it can be seen that during this period, due to the shadow, the temperature of all layers with diesel oil, also including the air temperature is lower, as mentioned earlier, the temperature after the shadow period is 1-2 minutes.
In the picture, after the shadow disappears, the temperature of the layer with diesel will rise.
In this case, the diesel layer is in shadow from 11: 37 to 11: 41 (Fig. 15)
The photo was taken at 11: 42.
However, in the infrared photo, the temperature of the thickest diesel layer in the second row is lighter than that of the other layers.
More importantly, in each period of shadow, you can see that the temperature of the thickest layer drops less than that of the thinner layer.
The difference between diesel and water can be clearly seen in Figure 16.
The thickest layer in an infrared photo is the most striking;
In addition, from the beginning of the experiment, the second layer was affected by direct sunlight, showing a more obvious difference between diesel layers of different thickness.
Perhaps the most obvious difference between diesel layers of different thickness and water can be seen in Figure 17.
The color distribution of all surfaces is uniform, and the water temperature is significantly lower than the temperature of the diesel layer (Fig. 18).
It can be concluded from the experimental results that oil products (
Diesel in this case)
Can be detected with an infrared camera.
However, shadow/cloud has a significant impact on the efficiency of such remote processing.
Direct sunlight is indispensable for surfaces of different temperatures.
As expected, the most obvious difference in color was the thickest diesel layer, which appeared after the experiment started.
To understand the difference between thin layers and water, it takes about 1-2 hours.
In addition, the temperature of diesel oil is related to the air temperature;
There is still no definition of any connection between the water temperature and the diesel layer.
Conclusions 1.
In experiments of different thickness1, 2 and 3 mm -
Detect the diesel layer using a thermal infrared FLIR camera. 2.
In this type of experiment, it is recommended to use a container with water, where the diesel layer of different thickness is formed and separated by 6 transparent small plastic rings. 3.
Infrared cameras can detect diesel, but shadows/clouds have a big impact on the efficiency of this remote approach.
For obvious differences in surface color at different temperatures, direct sunlight is essential. 4.
As expected, the color difference in the thickest layer of diesel is most obvious (3 mm)
After the experiment began, the difference appeared.
To see the difference between more thin layers (
Thickness 1 and 2mm)
Water is needed about-2 hours.
In addition, the temperature of the diesel layer related to the air temperature;
There is still no definition of any connection to the water temperature.
Are the dekoju people there?
Inerijos mokslo cool Pastato energetiniu irmikroklimato sistemu laboratory orijos kolektyvui u?
Tarimus.
Refer to Fingas, M. ; Brown, C. 2000.
Review of remote sensing of oil leakage, Marine Pollution Bulletin 10 (83): 199-208. Fingas, M. 2011.
Handbook of Oil Spill Science and Technology [online], [
Quoted on March 20, 2017]. Elsevier, USA. ISBN: 978-1-85617-943-0.
Available from the Internet: www. elsevier. com Fingas, M. 2015.
Summary of Oil Spill remote sensing technology.
Edmonton overflow Science Volume, Alberta, Canada. 9. Jha, M. N. ; Levy, J. ; Gao, Y. 2008.
Remote sensing progress of oil spill disaster management: Country-of-the-
Art sensor technology for oil spill monitoring sensors, disaster sensors and emergency management decisions 8 (20): 236-255. Leifer, I. ; Lehr, W. J. ; Simecek-Beatty, D. ; Bradley, E. ; Clark,R. ; Dennison, P. ; Hu, Y; Matheson, C; Jones, C. E. ; Holt, B. ; Reif, M. ; Dar A. Roberts, D. A. ; Svejkovsky, J. ; Swayze, G. ; Wozencraft, J. 2012.
State-of-the-art satellite and airborne ocean oil spill remote sensing: Application Environment 124 in BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill remote sensing (25): 185-209. Puestow, T. ; Parsons, L. ; Zakharov, I. ; Cater, N. ; Bobby, P. ; Fuglem, M. ; Parr, G. ; Jayasiri, A. ; Warren, S. ; Warbanski, G. 2013.
Oil Spill Detection and mapping in low visibility ice: Arctic Response Technology: Oil spill preparation. FinalReport 5. 1, vol. 84 p. Kristina PIL? IS (1), Vaidotas VAI? IS (2)
University of Technology, Vilnius, Lithuaniamails:(1)kristina. pilzis@stud. vgtu. It; (2)vaidotas. vaisis@vgtu.
Is it naftos aptikimas vandens? PAVIR?
Iuje naudojant, infraraudonujuku, kamera k. Pil? is, V. Vai?
Am I Santrauka?
Tiramisu in, Sue in Nusa Tory Antonio in Apia Tiki Mo in Irene gene of U · Ainu Pune of U · you si flat in Iraq in piggy?
Apra iamestraipsnyje?
Ytas eksperimentas buvo atlikas siekiant nustatyti, arimanoma aptikti naftos producktus ant vandens pavir?
Spindury Carmela. ?
I took Pavo pavitta. -
Storiausinaudoto naftos production to sluoksniai turejo didesne keeps neivanduo at the temperature.
Taip patted buvo nustatyta and clicked on naftos producktu temperaturatisiogiai priklause Novo temperaturos.
Taciau debesys labaididele Itaka?
Aptikimo Metto pile. Reik? miniai ? od? iai: naftos i?
Siliejimas, nuotolinis aptikimas, infraraudonieji sensoriai ,?
Ilumine infraraudonuju spinduliu kamera. Caption: Fig. 1.
Detect diesel oil using an infrared camera 1 pav.
Picture description of Dyzelino aptikimas naudojant infaraudonuju spinduliu kamera: figure. 2. a)ALMEMO[R]sensor; b)ALMEMO[R]connector; c)
FLIR camera 2 pav. ALMEMO[R]sensorius (a); ALMEMO[R]jungtis (b); FLIRkamera (c)Caption: Fig. 3.
Changes in water and air temperature in all Experiment 3.
Description of Vandens infrared oro temperaturu kitimas eksperimentomeu: Fig. 4.
Temperature of the thickest layer of air, water and diesel 4 pav.
Orro, vandens infrared storiausiu dyzelio sluoksniutematuros description: Fig. 5.
Temperature of the layer with air, water and diesel thickness of 5 pav.
Orro, vandens IR vidtutinio storiodyzeliu sluoksniu temeraturos description: Fig. 6.
Temperature of the most thin layer of air, water and diesel oil 6 pav.
Oluo, vandens infrared ploniausiu dyzeliu sluoksniutematuros description: Fig. 7.
At the beginning of experiment 7, the temperature of the air, water and diesel layer was in shadow.
Orro, vandens infrared dyzelio luoksniu, kurie eksperimento prad? ioje buvo ? e?
Description: figure: Temperature8.
There is no temperature of the air, water, and diesel layer of shadow 8 pav.
Lo, vandens infrared dyzelio sluoksniu, kurie visoeksperimento Motu nebuvo? e?
Description: figure: Temperature9. Infrared (left)and digital (right)
Photos at the beginning of the experiment.
Infraraudonuju spinduliu (kaire)irskaitmenine (de? ine)
Notecos?
Description: figure. 10. Infrared (left)and digital (right)
Photo 10 pav half an hour from the beginning of the experiment.
Infraraudonujuspinduliu (kaire)
Infrared skaitmenine (de? ine)
W Orlando NOI in Aix Perot Lim, in pride?
Ios Title: figure11. Infrared (left)and digital (right)
Photos an hour from the beginning of the experiment.
Infraraudonujuspinduliu (kaire)
Infrared skaitmenine (de? ine)
What about povalandos nunkperimto Pollard?
Ios Title: figure12. Infrared (left)and digital (right)
A photo of an hour and a half from experiment 12.
Infraraudonuju spinduliu (kaire)
Infrared skaitmenine (de? ine)
Mr Varin dos in, in Aix Perot Lim, in pride?
Ios Title: figure13. Infrared (left)and digital (right)
Photos two hours after the experiment started.
Infraraudonujuspinduliu (kaire)
Infrared skaitmenine (de? ine)
What about varandu nuncperimto Pollard?
Ios Title: figure14. Infrared (left)and digital (right)
Photos two and a half hours from experiment 14 pav.
Infraraudonuju spinduliu (kaire)
Infrared skaitmenine (de? ine)
Mr Varin dos in, in Aix Perot Lim, in pride?
Ios Title: figure15.
Shadow effect on temperature of air, water and diesel layer (
Shadow from 11: 37 to 11: 41)15 pav. ? e?
Elio poveikis Oro, vandens infrared dyzelio sluoksniu temperaturoms (? e?
Iki ll: 41 val. )Caption: Fig. 16. Infrared (left)and digital (right)
Photos three hours after the experiment started.
Infraraudonujuspinduliu (kaire)
Infrared skaitmenine (de? ine)
What about anutrakos Bo triju valandunuo eksperprad?
Ios Title: figure17. Infrared (left)and digital (right)
Photos three and a half hours from the beginning of experiment 17 pav.
Infraraudonuju spinduliu (kaire)
Infrared skaitmenine (de? ine)
Mr Varin dos in, in Aix Perot Lim, in pride?
Ios Title: figure18.
The difference between the temperature of the second row of 18 pav air, water and diesel layer.
Oro vandens infrared antros eilesdyzeliu sluoksniu temperaturu skirtumai please note: Figure (s)
Cannot be used due to copyright restrictions.
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