chocolate forests - can cocoa help save the amazon? - carbon dioxide absorbent
New York, Brazil (Reuters)-
Over the years, valdomico Facchi has made a living on the carved land of the Amazon rainforest.
He is a small part of one of the world's biggest environmental disasters.
But now his cattle are stepping on the dust.
The new law prevents him from clearing new land.
He must find new income.
"I want to diversify," said the 68-year-old.
The year-old ranchers outlined plans to plant cocoa trees on his 300-hectare land in Pará, Brazil.
"When the profit of the cattle industry fails, I want to get cocoa income.
"Facchi demonstrates the trend that the damaged parts of the Amazon basin turn green again, and establish a common alliance between the agricultural industry and the Conservation of Nature.
Brazilian cattle farmers grow cocoa on used cocoa.
With the financial support of the international environmental organization.
This is a big change.
The ranchers have been clear for decades-
The deforestation of the Amazon rainforest makes the area almost as large as that of Spain without trees.
Environmental activists believe this has damaged the habitat of wildlife and the ability of the Earth to absorb carbon dioxide that causes global warming.
"Cocoa plantations are not only a means to avoid deforestation, but also conducive to local, regional and national economies," the international environmental organization Nature Conservation Association said on its website . ".
These trees will also change the global cocoa market.
National Cocoa Processing Industry Association of Brazil (AIPC)
It is expected that by 2028, the surge in planting will double the country's chocolate raw material production to 400,000 tons per year.
This growth will increase global output by about 5% per cent.
The new planting could make Brazil once again one of the world's three largest cocoa growers, as the industry was destroyed by a crop fungus called a "witch broom" in its 1990 s.
Environmental activists and cocoa industry delegates expect this trend to help mitigate clear-
The Amazon rainforest has been cut down about 430,000 square kilometers since the 1980 s.
Eduardo Bastos, executive director of AIPC, said 50% of the increase in cocoa production would come from Amazon, where he called the cocoa farm "chocolate forest ".
"Green organizations like the conservation society and the Amazon Fund have helped fund new cocoa plantations.
Established by the Brazilian government and accepted international donations to fight deforestation.
Poured 17 million reals (£3. 5 million)
Funding for crops.
According to Bastos of AIPC, nearly 1,700 square kilometres of degraded pastures in Brazil have been converted into cocoa plantations.
Cocoa cultivation is mainly due to new restrictions on the cattle industry, which has changed the financial incentives for ranchers.
In Amazon, if it is not properly managed, the pasture may deteriorate in less than three years, making it difficult to raise prosperous pastures without new planting areas.
In 2014, Brazil passed a law that allowed landowners to clean up only 20% of their property in the Amazon area and required some landowners to replant the depleted areas.
The law aims to curb deforestation, which peaked at 27,000 square kilometers per year in 2004.
In 2017, the Amazon rainforest area in Brazil was reduced by 6,624 square kilometers.
Cocoa can earn revenue from a relatively small plot compared to the ranch, without the need for constant expansion.
Eduardo Trevisan Gonsalves, project manager at Imaflora, Brazil, said profits can be increased by five times, and Imaflora is an environmental organization that targets the region
Benefits extend to the environment.
Cocoa plantations can mimic natural forests, help restore local plant and wildlife species, increase water resources and absorb carbon dioxide, Goncalves said.
"This is a perennial crop," he said . "
"It will stay there for decades.
"The funding of the environmental groups comes with guidelines aimed at improving the ecological benefits of the plantations, and according to José Garcia, a farmer in central Barra, he is receiving funding from the Amazon Fund.
Under these terms, he said, he would have to grow cocoa, such as mahogany and IPI, along with other higher native species.
"Cocoa is recommended to be planted with other trees --taller ones -
To benefit from the shadows, "he said at his farm in métilia, Pará.
Evidence of this shift is everywhere in the Medici region, where barren pastures have given way to shady plantations of cocoa trees with yellow and Ruby pods, the fiber of cocoa beans
In the city of Medici, a low
The town in Pará is lined with dirt roads, and farmers transport bags filled with dried cocoa beans to warehouses with the words "We buy cocoa.
Nearby shops offer ice
Cold cocoa juice, very thick
A sweet drink made of fruit pulp.
Brazil is one of the world's largest growers of soybeans, corn, sugar, coffee and oranges, and a major agricultural country.
But it never fell.
In the early 1990 s, after the witch broom cut production, cocoa.
In the state of Pará, however, the witch's broom rarely survives long enough to destroy the trees.
This fungus requires a humid environment and basically dies during the annual dry season.
Bastos of AIPC said that, as a result, the production of cocoa trees in para is almost twice the global average.
There is some evidence that Brazil can absorb part of this additional production: Euromonitor International Limited per capita chocolate consumption in Brazil to 1.
2 kilograms a year, compared to 8.
8 kg in Switzerland, this shows the space for the growth of the domestic chocolate market in Brazil.
Processing companies in Brazil
Convert cocoa beans into butter, powder and chocolate
The prospect of increasing domestic supply to meet plant needs and reduce imports is welcome, but this also raises doubts.
Cocoa Brazil Kidambi srintro, vice president of Oran International, for example, if there is no higher market price and more assistance to growers, including financing, training and supply, the target of 400,000 tons per year is "unlikely ".
The benchmark cocoa price in New York is currently around $2,500 per ton and has rebounded by 10-
Worried about a global glut, it hit an annual low of $1,756 in 2017.
Other large processors include Cargill in Brazil, which has 850 million tons of factory Ilhéus, Belle carlibao, the world's largest industrial chocolate, and the company opened its first South American chocolate factory in Brazil in 2010.
For some ranchersturned-
Growers, the chance to eliminate some of the damage that ranches do to Amazon is as important as the money they make from cocoa.
"There was a time when I thought: we shouldn't be here," said Eldo Trevisan, who arrived in Pará on 1972 and cleared nearly 100% of his land.
"But now," he said, "we can make some compensation. ” Graphic -
The largest producer of cocoa and consumer of chocolate: tmsnrt.