a monumental history of new york city - dry ice packs for shipping food
Gotham City: The History of New York City to the 18 th century
Burrows and Mike wallacebaul 21, 1999 website announced: 4: 05 P. M. m. EDT (2005 GMT)(CNN)--
This work won 1999 Pulitzer Prize for history, which is the first volume.
The history of New York City.
The work began with the earliest Indian tribes and ended with the merger of the five boroughs to Greater New York in 1898.
Chapter 1 First Impression "this is Eden!
Jacob standin, the Dutch poet, rejoiced.
Daniel Denton, a British prose writer, echoed the phrase "land Canaan", where the land was flowing with milk and honey.
"This is the usual reaction of Europeans who began settling down the Hudson Valley and the port islands of New York three and a half centuries ago.
The beauty and richness of the natural environment in other parts of North America will not attract such a consistent luxury compliment.
At first, it was Denton's call of "the sweetness of the Air" that attracted explorers and travellers.
"Dry, sweet, healthy," writes Adriaen van der Donck . ".
Missionary Jaspar Danckaerts pointed out in his diary that his ship was "sweet and fresh" and passed by Sandy Hook.
"Like the best place in France," announced the priest. John Miller.
Something that can produce this air, or where it comes from, is the subject of widespread speculation.
Miller traced it back to the surrounding "hills, wooden countries, with lakes and big valleys all over the place, the containers that were the first time they sucked in and shrunk into the nursery, forge and wind boxes, then drain and ventilate with a stronger expansion.
"Denton also highlights the vast forests and fields of the area," it is strange that there are covered with roses and countless delightful flowers, "which can be smelled on the distant seas
The effect is magical, and it is speculated that it may cure colds, consumption, and other respiratory diseases.
But its size, quantity and variety are incredible. -
Pure prodigal son of life-
Left the most lasting impression.
The vast grass is "as high as it is in the middle", the traveler says, with towering walnuts, Cedar, chestnut, maple and oak trees in the forest.
There are sweet apples and pears bigger than fists in the orchard.
"Every spring, hills and fields are dyed red by ripe strawberries, and so many birds are filled in the woods," and people can hardly blow whistle, noise and chatter through them.
"Boats crossing the bay are escorted by schools of playful whales, seals and dolphins. Twelve-
Foot lobsters are crowded in offshore waters, and many fish thrive in streams and ponds and can be caught by hand.
The forest and tidal marsh is full of bears, wolves, foxes, racoons, otters, beavers, quail, partridge
Pound wild turkey, pigeons "so much that little light can be seen where they fly", countless deer "fed", or frolicking or resting in the shadow of the panorama.
"Wild Swans are very rich" and the Bay and coast where they are on holiday look like they are wearing white curtains.
"Black birds live together, and a hunter killed 170 with one shot;
Another bag of eleven sixteen-
Beat the gray goose in the same way.
"Some people think that the animals in this country will be destroyed in time," Van del Donk mused, "but it is an unnecessary anxiety.
"The formation of this lush ecosystem of immigrant ice has begun 70-
5,000 years ago, when a group of glaciers climbed down from Labrador, into the almost uncharacteristic plain, then extended east from the Allegheny Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean and in modern New York City
About 50,000 years ago, the area was covered with thousands of feet of ice.
Its great weight, and the constant ice flow from the north, crushed the land below, crushed the river bed, dug up the deep valley, drag along boulders, gravel, and sand like a giant conveyor clay.
In parts of Manhattan and the Bronx, it divested everything above the cornerstone ---
The 0. 5 billion-year-old rock, marble and rock formations are now lying naked in the eyes of the past, scarred by their torture.
So much water on Earth is captured in this ice sheet and other ice sheets that the sea level has dropped by 300 feet or more and the coastline has expanded for hundreds of miles.
The gust of the Arctic blew its face from the desolate tundra, where only Moss and Moss lived and reached Philadelphia at the far south.
About 17,000 years ago, the climate in the northern hemisphere began to warm.
When the ice sheet melts, its farthest forward route is marked by a terminal ice aine-the still-
Visible ridge from northern Queens through the glacier fragments of Jamaica Hills, Highland Parks, Crown Heights and Gulf ridges (
This, in turn, ignores communities such as Flatbush and flatlands, which settle on the sandy ice sheet on the ice sheet).
The ice aine spans the south side of Staten Island and reaches the highest altitude of 410 feet at Tode Mountain (
Highest natural point along the Atlantic coast of Southern Maine)
Then turn north across New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
Trapped behind the ice aine, the runoff sink flowing out of the retreating ice integrates cold lakes, flooding the area for thousands of years before their waters break through a mile --
Now known as the "narrow" wide gap, drainage to the ocean.
Shrubs, pine trees and birch trees take root on the thawed tundra, and then, 12,000 years ago, were replaced by spruce and fir trees on the open grass.
Woolly elephant, bodice elephant, buffalo, Musk cow, bear, sloth, Big Beaver, reindeer, Army knife
Tigers with teeth and other large animals also moved in.
Behind them was a band of nomadic hunters. -
The first people in the area-
He followed the race for thousands of years, leaving only flint spear points and a bunch of bones as evidence of their existence.
9,000 years ago, when the effects of continued warming drove away the large beasts on which they lived, the Hunter left.
The hard branches of oak, chestnut and pecans are taken over from pine and spruce.
Driven by melted ice packs, the ocean rises again, flooding the coastal low-lands, and returning through the narrow strait, creating the spacious Upper Bay that serves as the Port of New York.
At the end of the ice age in the terrain of northern ice aine, it shapes the wonderful terrain of a new island, fjord, Bay, tidal marsh and Peninsula.
The Hudson River Canyon is transformed into a wide estuary, and the flooded valley becomes the Long Island Strait, the Harlem River, the East River and the Arthur Kiir River.
Under the narrow strait, protect the upper bay from the Atlantic Ocean and spread to the lower bay ---a hundred-square-
A mile of water, the entrance is guarded by the Rockaway Peninsula and Sandy Hook, a barrier beach in Queens, Long Island, and extended from New Jersey.
A wide underwater sandbar, traveling between Sandy Hook and Coney Island, pierced here and there through navigable channels, providing the arriving sailors with the only access to the 770 mile waterfront
Where does LENAPES live about 60-
Before 500, this environmental change attracted the second generation of human beings.
The new guy is very small.
Hunting and foraging for deer, wild turkey, fish, shellfish, nuts and berries.
Although they have a limited number of tools, their camp can be occupied by up to 200 people at a time. Roughly twenty-
Before 500, they discovered the use of bows and arrows, learned to make pottery, and began planting pumpkins, sunflowers and possible tobacco.
They also started growing beans and corn about thousands of years ago.
These changes support more people.
Just before 500, when Europeans appeared on the scene, estimates of up to 15,000 residents in New York City now differ greatly ---
In neighboring areas of New Jersey, Connecticut, Westchester County, and Long Island, there may be between 30 and 50,000 people.
Most people say Munsee, a dialect of Delaware, whose own name is Lenape--
"Man" or "man ".
Their land is larnabkin. -
"The place where Lenapes live.
"Lenapes by more than a dozen-
Strange groups living between eastern Connecticut and central New Jersey.
It is rare in the West (
Staten Island and laritan Bay
Hackensack and ruitan Valley in New Jersey, the Tappans (
Northern New Jersey)
And Rechgawawanches (Orange County).
Their peers (
Including Wikipedia in the East (
North Manhattan, Bronx and Westchester)
And Siwanoys (
Run along the East River and the North Shore of Long Island to the Connecticut line)
And Long Island of matinecoks, Massapequas, Rockaways, Merricks, and others.
These are not Wells-
Defined, organized "tribes" or "nations" Occupy the imagination of European colonists.
Except in very unusual cases, Lenapes is primarily an autonomous group or band of dozens to hundreds of people.
They also did not live in "villages" that Europeans understood, but in a series of seasonal camps.
In spring or early summer, a band, fishing and capsizing can be found near the coast;
As autumn approached, it moved inland to harvest crops and hunt deer.
When winter comes, it may move again to get closer to reliable sources of firewood and sources of smaller games. As the Rev.
Charles Wally said that the Lun apes were "very rude and active, moving from one place to another based on their emergency and the proceeds of fishing, birding and hunting, never limit rambling humor to any fixed mansion.
"In the five boroughs of modern New York alone, archaeologists have discovered about 80 Lenape places of residence, more than 20 planting sites, and the intricate network of paths and paths links them together.
In Manhattan, from the current southern Battery Park to Inwood in the north, the main trail stretches along the hills of the island.
Just north of town hall Park, it passes through a camp with a 60 nearbyfoot-
Deep pools, fed by underground springs, plus the adjacent meadows and swamps, divide the islands in half.
Further north, the trail runs through the village of Greenwich, a secondary path leading west to Sapokanikan, a place to fish and plant on the Hudson River at the foot of Gansevoort Street.
On about 98 th Street and Park Avenue, the trail is extended by a camp called Konaande Kongh, on the wide flat north of Harlem, and more fishing camps and planting(
Landing from an East River on 119 Street, fishermen rowing boats on the trees --
The trunk canoes to the net or spear striped bass. )
Its northern end point is three camps along the Harlem River, two of which are now actually located in the Bronx, thanks to the building --
Harlem canal tour.
Across the East River, in Brooklyn and Queens, another major artery extends from the Nassau County line to below the terminal ice aine along the current route west of Jamaica Avenue.
Evergreen Cemetery in Brooklyn
The Queen's border, descend along the Kings Highway, cross the ice sheet in south Brooklyn, and then swing west in a narrow direction along the Bay Ridge Park Road.
Today, the King's Highway runs through the main Canadian camp through the frattbush Avenue.
At the west end of Bayfront Park Avenue in Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn, it passes through a camp where residents maintain the planted land in nearby Gravesend. A -half-
More than a dozen branches extend to the attractions around Jamaica Bay, from the main roccaraway camp in the east to the present West Bergen Beach, to the most popular summer resort, Coney Island
Other branches run to mápez in New City Creek, to the coast of Wayo Bay, to Downtown Brooklyn (
Close to Boro Hall)
From there, to the corn fields along Gowanus Creek.
Similar trail grids can be tracked in Staten Island and the Bronx.
Run along the Atlantic coast of Staten Island, marking the current route of Amboy Road and Richmond Road, a road connecting tottville, the great killing Park and the Silver Lake Park camp.
At Silver Lake Park, it crosses with shorter paths around the central hills of the island and reaches more locations along Van Kull and Arthur Kill.
In the Bronx, most of the main trails stretch north.
Flow south along the Harlem, Bronx and Hutchinson rivers and various small streams and streams into the East River or Eastchester Bay.
These trails link the camp with the planting sites along the coast-
One of them is at the point of hunting and the other is at the point of deduction, which may have sheltered 300 or more people ---
Similar places within the hills.
Their seasonal movement along these trail systems makes it easy for len apes to have access to fish, shellfish, wild birds and deer ---
Animal protein sources that make up for the lack of livestock ---
But this short lifestyle means that tools, weapons, and cookware must be simple and light, or easy to copy.
Their long houses, some inhabited by more than a dozen families, can be built quickly with curved saplings covered with bark, cracks clogged with clay and corn poles.
Moving from one place to another every few months also hinders the accumulation of property. (
Dutch fur merchants soon discovered that locals did not want the iron pot to be traded because it was too heavy. )
It also minimizes the accumulation of waste and waste-
Although the Pearl Street in Lower Manhattan will get its name from the rock shell pile left by the Lenape band along the East River coast.
The constant relocation also prevented the drying up of firewood and arable land: when supplies were reduced, the group just packed up their bags and went to other places until this place was again able to support human habitation.
By stopping the storage of more food than the next camp, seasonal relocation helps minimize the human impact on local flora and fauna populations, giving them the opportunity to bounce back before the return of Lenapes next year.
The Lenape band prepares and maintains their woodland planting fields by Slashand-
Burning method, remove all trees except the largest trees and bushes, and then burn the garbage and bushes every spring.
This resulted in the rapid cultivation of the rest of the land and the return of the necessary nutrients to the soil, with the implementation of the European crop rotation system, whose production life has been greatly extended for more than two or three years.
Sow all kinds of crops together in the same field-
Corn, sunflower, beans, pumpkin, melon, cucumber and tobacco-
High nitrogen concentration was maintained;
It also requires less work, because for example corn poles can support beans and humansmade poles.
More importantly, the simple stone and wood tools of the len ape easily change the soil without the damage caused by European plows and draft animals.
In other words, not less than following their colonists, Lenapes "settled" the land by manipulating the land for their purpose.
Whether they use it consciously or not, the way they use it expands the diversity of plant and animal life on which they live.
The extensive use of firewood around their main place of residence, coupled with the plantations that are active every spring, leaves vast, open, park-like forests, with deer, rabbits, birds, other games thriving.
Their abandoned plantings turned into grasslands and prairies full of flowers and edible berries.
Because the spiritual beliefs of Lenape emphasize the interdependency of all life, hunting is a business full of supernatural significance, avoiding excessive killing.
Therefore, the richness that amazed early European tourists is not just an accident of nature, because "nature" is a product of culture and geology.
There is nothing more lazy and savage than kinship that makes it harder for Europeans to see the connection between Lenapes and their environment-not class--
Is the foundation of their society.
The relationship between private ownership of the land and the hierarchy of Europe's familiar rule and exploitation is unknown in renapuhawking.
Through customs and negotiations with neighbouring countries, each Lenape band has the "right" to hunt, fish and plant within certain territories ".
It may allow other groups or individuals to share these territories in exchange for gifts, but that does not mean a "sale" or a permanent transfer as described by European law.
In addition, in the absence of a state, the war between the Lenapes is more systematic and cruel than the war between Europeans.
As Daniel Denton said contemptuously: "This is a great battle in which seven or eight people have been killed.
"What is even more confusing is that in Lenape society, kinship is traced back by sex.
Families in each location are divided into tribes that trace their ancestry from a single female ancestor;
Phratries, or a combination of more than two tribes, are identified by animal signs, usually "wolves", "Turtles" and "turkeys ".
According to their mother's definition, the child belongs to them: if she is a turtle, they are a turtle.
The land is allocated to tribes and family units made up of them for their use only: Europeans understand the word, they do not "own" it, there is also no power to dispose of it by sale, gift or bequest.
If the land "belongs" to anyone, it belongs to all the inhabitants.
At one point, it seems that Europe and renpu society are similar: division of labor by gender.
In addition to cooking and raising children, Lenape women have done a lot of agricultural work ---
Planting, weeding, harvesting, drying, packaging, sorting--
This makes them responsible for 90% of the food supply.
During the seasonal changes in settlements, their work was also to strike and rebuild homes and transport public goods.
In contrast, the Lenape people see agriculture as unmanly and devote their energy to hunting and fishing.
European observers are often shocked that when they come back, they are relaxed while their women are busy in the fields, although this reaction is compared to sympathy for women with regard to"
Europeans believe that agriculture is a respectable profession for men, while hunting and fishing are mainly entertainment. (
"They do not work much, but absolutely necessary, they are mainly engaged in hunting and fishing," Charles Lord Wick reported to the Royal Society . ". ")
The fact that their people are clearly unwilling to work only deepens the impression that even the great apes do little to conquer and develop the land.
The division of gender and the parent organization of tribes and phratries has given women a significant position in community affairs.
Every sachem was chosen from his son. -
Sometimes even daughter-
He is a sister of the old sachem, and it is likely that the older women of his phratry have made practical choices.
There is also evidence that, after divorce, this is a simple thing for a lenpu woman (
They keep all the family property and their children are always with them because they have the same bloodline.
Seasonal place of residence, few tools and personal property, lack of domesticated animals, disorderly planting grounds, social system without class and nationality, maternal blood relationship, indifference to business-
For many Europeans, all of this adds up to a lifestyle of extreme inferiority and falling into primitive poverty.
This seems to be the opposite of the existence of civilization, the evil reversal of the correct order of things.
For the Dutch, all Indians are Wilden. -savages--
Although the British compare them to the despised "wild Irish", their seasonal migration with sheep and cattle seems completely incompatible with civilization.
Yes, they don't seem to suffer.
"It's a bit strange," admitted Nichols van vasenner, "and there is little or no cross-over among these most brutal people --
Eyes, blind, lame, lame, intuitive
Man's back or limp; all are well-
Strong body, beautiful voice, good food, no flaws.
"Some people have lived in 100," Marvel Charles Lord wake . ".
Jasper Danckaerts added, "there are no fools, lunatics or lunatics like us among them.
"In fact, it seems to the Europeans that the Lun apes live so satisfied, like a wonderful" natural "rich environment that makes them even more despicable.
How can people who live in such a place use the opportunities around them so thoroughly?
They were supposed to be civilized and rich, but they were not.
It's just a small step to come to the conclusion that they shouldn't be there at all.
The new world map of the fur trade in the 16 th century, drawn by Juan de la Kosa, suggests that Europeans ---
Anonymous fishermen looking for cod-
While Columbus was still exploring the Caribbean, he might have visited renapelhawking.
However, the first hard evidence of such a visit was the arrival of a French vessel, La d'auphine, driven by Fiorentina navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano.
French King Francis I and a Lyon silk merchant group commissioned villazano to find a northern route to China and Japan. -
"India" Columbus dreamed ".
In March 1524, after the age of 50
One day from Madeira Island, La d'auphine begins to climb up the coast from the Cape of fear. By mid-
On April, she passed through Sandy Hook and broke down in a narrow area between Staten Island and Brooklyn.
As they have done so many times before, the crew of La Dauphine put down the long boat of the boat and rowed out to see what they could see.
Verrazzano said they soon found themselves in "a very beautiful Lake ---the Upper Bay--
There, they were surrounded by dozens of small boats whose occupants were "dressed in feathers of all colors" and greeted them with great pleasure, with a loud cry of admiration.
"However, the happy encounter ended almost at the beginning.
A sudden storm forced La d'auphine to sail again, so Verrazzano decided to keep searching North ---
"We are very sorry because it is a" hospitable and attractive "country and we do not think it is something of no value," he added.
In honor of the king's sister and the surrounding land angouulme, he named the "lake" Santa Marita Tower, the name of the King's main manor. (
When the Verrazano Narrows Bridge opened in 1964, the Triborough Bridge and the Tunnel Authority spelled the explorer's name with one z instead of two. )
After a short visit to Verrazzano, the Portuguese black pilot estban Gomez, who sailed with Magellan, ventured on the Hudson River (
He named it Deer River)
It did not lead to China until the end.
It is believed that various French and British pilots also conducted reconnaissance in the area in the following years.
It is speculated that an Englishman crossed the Hudson River at 1568 during an epic overland trek from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada.
It is rumored that trapped sailors and fishermen spent the winter at the end of the 1590 century and at the beginning of the 1600 Century along the Delaware or Hudson River.
Sometimes the captains of Britain and Spain raided the area to capture slaves.
Seven New England Indians were sold at the Lisbon slave market.
But most of villazano's and Gomez's successors are fur traders.
Fur has always occupied an important position in European luxury goods industry;
The beaver is especially highly praised for its soft, deep fur and alleged medicinal properties.
As Adriaen van der Donck explained in the mid-17th century, Beaver oil treated rheumatism, toothache, stomachache, poor vision and dizziness;
Beaver's testicles rub on the forehead or dissolve in the water after drying, and are an effective drug for treating drowsiness and idiots.
Traditionally, most of the fur sold in Europe comes from Russia.
They are trapped along Siberia or the Baltic Sea and sold in clothing in the ancient city of Kiev.
But when French explorers and businessmen open the Holy
In the Lawrence valley of 1580 century, the influx of Canadian skin has created a wider market in Europe and has prompted competitors to seek more sources of supply elsewhere in North America.
In 1600 of the time, the exchange of European goods with beaver and other fur has become the daily life of at least some Indians along the Atlantic coast, and there is no doubt that the Lun ape is one of them.
European traders from the 1570 s came out of their place of residence and went deep into the interior of New York State. Dutch businessmen claimed to have "frequented" the lower Hudson Valley as early as 1598, "but there were no fixed settlements, just as a shelter in winter.
"Not all Lenapes are anxious to do business with Europeans.
Some people must have heard stories of being imprisoned as slaves.
Others seem reluctant to accept the spirit of a market economy.
Johannes de Laet said in 1615: "They took a lot of beaver away, but it is necessary for them to develop the habit of trading, otherwise they are too lazy to hunt the beaver.
"Even half a century later, Daniel Denton will notice that many Long Island long-tailed apes still show obvious indifference to material wealth.
He wrote: "They are very charitable to each other, and one has nothing to spare, but he is free to give it to his friends, whatever they get through the game or any other way, they share with each other, usually leaving themselves with the least amount of sharing.
What Europeans offer to the ape. -
Blankets, brass kettles, Iron Diamonds, hoes, knives, Combs--
Nevertheless, there are obvious improvements in familiar things and can be easily integrated into the general mode of production and exchange.
At first, when guns and alcohol are added as trade goods, the speed will be faster, and even reluctant curiosity will replace habits and habits instead of dependence.
By the beginning of the 17 th century, demand for items of European descent had begun to undermine their way of life.
Even when the first colonists arrived at the scene, Lenape also increasingly took the time to collect the fur and exchange it with the Europeans instead of using their families and tribes.
They are away from home longer, come back with less food, and every spring, when the shops they harvested before end up running out, it brings more communities closer to real famine (
And eventually wiped out the fur.
Animals throughout the lower Hudson area).
Then, as men's work shifts from tracking to setting up and checking traps, territorial boundaries are also a matter of escalating disputes.
The reciprocal relationship of maintaining a complex network of relatives has been weakened.
Band disband, re-
To seek stability, disband again.
The old inter-group alliance broke down.
With the spread of guns, the possibility of war is growing, and it is becoming more and more deadly.
As European goods have replaced similar goods, traditional skills, duties and knowledge are becoming less and less important.
Lenape women are increasingly responsible for providing food for the camp and managing internal affairs.
As a manager of trade with Europeans, Lenape desems has gained a new reputation, although it is increasingly difficult to manage their often conflicting communities every year, not to mention mobilising them to resist.
Alcohol accelerates the disruption of early methods.
As early as 1624, nicollaes van Wassenaer could report that excessive drinking had undermined the authority of at least one sachem, who "stood up and asked for a drink with others
"At the same time, another danger for the Lun ape is to appear in the north in the form of the elogi alliance.
According to legend, the idea of the alliance originated in the 16 th century, when a prophet and philosopher of Huron, named Deganawidah, wandered among the eloki --
The upper class of the state of New York who spoke preached the gospel of unity, brotherhood and equality.
About 1570, with a certain amount of Ha-assistanceyo-went'-ha (
Hai Hua Sha, Longfellow)
Deganawidah gathered Mohawk, Oneda, Kayuga and Seneca "nations" in a federation known as the "Great Peace Union"
The alliance extends from the Hudson River to Niagara, which includes about a dozen semi-permanent villages with a population of nearly 15,000.
Once Deganawidah and Ha-yo-went'-ha had gone--
It is said that it is not dead, just to continue to spread their message among the unfortunate crowd in other places ---
The alliance has entered a new phase of active expansion.
Its troops sometimes have thousands of fighters, from the West to the banks of Mississippi, from south to Virginia and Carolina, from east to New England, from north to St.
Lawrence of Canada
Unlike the spirit of the Crusader knights of medieval Christianity, they took de canavida and Ha-yo-went'-
Ha, it is a scourge for all who oppose them.
Like the spirit of the Crusader Knights, they also have practical motives.
Their initial contact with European goods and weapons must be at Deganawidah and Ha-yo-went'-
Ha is completing their work, leaving a deep impression on the eloki people, which is not only the importance of direct contact with traders, but also the importance of controlling the supply of fur.
In the 1580 s, about a decade after the alliance was formed, the elogi tried to be in St.
But Lawrence was driven back by a group of French-armed Hualong and algonki forces.
In 1609, a French trade station was set up in Quebec, which completed the failure of the eloki people and enabled Hualong and their allies to organize a large, complex trading empire, they use European goods to obtain food from the agricultural people living above Lake Erie, exchange food for skins brought by far North hunting groups, and then bring the skins to Quebec for more trade goods.
In desperation, the eloki turned south to the saquinas, Delaware, and Hudson Valley.
Prior to 1600, they abused or expelled many of the original residents. The Algonkian-
The mahigan, who lives near the Hudson Hexi side of modern Albany, is the next person in line.
If they give in, too. -
When they give in-
All the people on the lower Hudson River will be threatened in turn.
The Europeans were at their front door, and the elokies were at their back, and Lenapes were doomed.
All rights reserved©1999 Edwin G.
Burrows and Mike Wallace.